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Netherlands
Kingdom of The Netherlands

The Netherlands, informally known as Holland, is a West European country at the North Sea, that borders Germany (east) and Belgium (south). It also has a maritime border (west) with the United Kingdom (UK). It consists of 12 provinces, and has several former colonies in the Caribian [1]. During WWII, The Netherlands was an occupied country under Nazi-Germany. After the war – during the Cold War – it had a Stay-Behind Organisation and became part of the NATO alliance.

Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of The Netherlands


Dutch spy radio sets
Radio Oranje (Radio Orange)
Clandestine midget receiver with three 'acorn' valves
Homemade spy radio station used by the Ordedienst (OD) in the Netherlands during WWII
Philips ZO-47, used by Dutch stay-behind from 1947 onwards
Modular valve-based US spy radio set (made by Motorola as the RS-6) modified in The Netherlands
Modular German SP-15 spy radio set, known in the Netherlands as FSS-7 and modified with a synthesizer
Telefunken spy set FS-5000
 The Dutch Stay-Behind Organisation during the Cold War


Other spy radio sets used in The Netherlands
Whaddon Mk V spy radio set (Le Paracette) - 1941 - developed by the SIS
Whaddon Mk VII spy radio set (Paraset)
The famous Type 3 Mark II, also known as the B2
B2
British suitcase spy radio set Type A Mk. II (A2)
The UK Type A Mk. III (A3)
The UK Type 36/1 (MCR-1)
WANTED - Full duplex UHF radio for resistance communication and air droppings
 The Dutch Stay-Behind Organisation during the Cold War


WWII
Dutch Resistance
During World War II (WWII), the Netherlands was an occupied country under Nazi-Germany. The Dutch Government – and Queen Wilhelmina – were relocated to London (UK), from where they controlled resistance operations and intelligence gathering, by dropping agents over occupied territory and maintaining radio contact via an international network of clandestine radio stations. During the war, three major clandestine resistance organisations were active in the Netherlands:

The first two, OD and RVV, maintained contact between occupied Netherlands and the Dutch Government in exile in London, using a variety of spy radio sets, mainly supplied by the UK. In addition, the OD built a national radio network that would be used in the final stages of the war, if the existing infrastructure (e.g. telephone lines) had been destroyed by retreating Germans. For this internal radio network, the OD developed and built its own spy radio sets. For the operation of its clandestine radio networks, the OD and RVV heavily relied on licenced radio amateurs.

In addition to the three large national resistance organisations, there were many smaller national and local initiatives, some of which were eventually integrated with one of the three larger ones. A few examples:

GDN Geheime Dienst Nederland Secret Service Netherlands
NC Nationaal Comité National committee
LO Landelijke Organisatie National Organisation
NSF Nationaal Steunfonds National Support Fund
PB Persoonsbewijzenclub ID club
GH Groep Harry Group Harry
GW Groep Wim Group Wim
GFL Groep Fiat Libertas Group Fiat Libertas
Radio Oranje
During the war, the Dutch Government in exile in London operated Radio Oranje (Radio Orange), which was a daily 15-minute radio program broadcast by the BBC World Service. Radio Oranje provided information for the citizens in occupied Netherlands, and tried to counter the German propaganda. It also regularly broadcasted coded messages for resistance organisations. After the liberation of the southern part of The Netherlands, the broadcasts of Radio Oranje were gradually taken over by Radio Herrijzend Nederland (The Netherlands Revived) in Eindhoven.

 More about Radio Oranje
 More about Radio Herrijzend Nederland


Cold War
Dutch Stay-behind
After WWII — during the Cold War — the Netherlands had a Stay-Behind Organisation (SBO), named O&I (later (A en B). It was part of a large pan-European network of secretly trained agents, that would be activated in case of an invasion by the Soviet Union (USSR). For O&I, the country developed its own spy radio set — ZO-47 — but later adopted radio sets from its American, British and German partners. The Netherlands also took part in the development of the pan-European stay-behind radio FS-5000 (HARPOON), which became operational in 1990, just two years before O&I was dismantled.

 Stay-Behind Organisation O&I
 Cold War spy radio sets


References
  1. Wikipedia, Netherlands
    Retrieved December 2020.
Further information
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Crypto Museum. Created: Friday 20 May 2016. Last changed: Monday, 27 November 2023 - 20:06 CET.
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