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Netherlands
Kingdom of The Netherlands

The Netherlands, informally known as Holland, is a West European country at the North Sea, that borders Germany (east) and Belgium (south). It also has a maritime border (west) with the United Kingdom (UK). It consists of 12 provinces, and has several former colonies in the Caribian [1]. During WWII, The Netherlands was an occupied country under Nazi-Germany. After the war, i.e. during the Cold War, it had a Stay-Behind Organisation and became part of the NATO alliance.

Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of The Netherlands


Dutch spy radio sets on this website
Whaddon Mk V spy radio set (La Paracette)
Whaddon Mk VII spy radio set (Paraset)
The famous Type 3 Mark II, also known as the B2
B2
British suitcase spy radio set Type A Mk. II (A2)
The UK Type A Mk. III (A3)
The UK Type 36/1 (MCR-1)
WANTED - Full duplex UHF radio for resistance communication and air droppings
Homemade spy radio station used by the Ordedienst (OD) in the Netherlands during WWII
Clandestine midget receiver with three 'acorn' valves
Radio Oranje (Radio Orange)
Philips ZO-47, used by Dutch stay-behind from 1947 onwards
Telefunken spy set FS-5000
 The Dutch Stay-Behind Organisation during the Cold War


WWII
During World War II (WWII), the Netherlands was an occupied country under Nazi-Germany. The Dutch Government – and Queen Wilhelmina – were relocated to London (UK), from where they controlled resistance operations and intelligence gathering, by dropping agents over occupied territory and maintaining radio contact via an international network of clandestine radio stations. During the war, three major clandestine resistance organisations were active in the Netherlands:

The first two, OD and RVV, maintained contact between occupied Netherlands and the Dutch Government in exile in London, using a variety of spy radio sets, mainly supplied by the UK. In addition, the OD built a national radio network that would be used in the final stages of the war, if the existing infrastructure (e.g. telephone lines) had been destroyed by retreating Germans. For this internal radio network, the OD developed and built its own spy radio sets. For the operation of its clandestine radio networks, the OD and RVV heavily relied on licenced radio amateurs.

In addition to the three large national resistance organisations, there were many smaller national and local initiatives, some of which were eventually integrated with one of the three larger ones. A few examples:

  • GDN
    Geheime Dienst Nederland (Secret Service Netherlands)
  • NC
    Nationaal Comité
  • LO
    Landelijke Organisatie
  • NSF
    Nationaal Steufonds
  • PB
    Persoonsbewijzenclub
  • GH
    Groep Harry
  • GW
    Groep Wim
  • GFL
    Groep Fiat Libertas
Radio Oranje
During the war, the Dutch Government in exile in London operated Radio Oranje (Radio Orange), which was a daily 15-minute radio program broadcast by the BBC World Service. Radio Oranje provided information for the citizens in occupied Netherlands, and tried to counter the German propaganda. It also regularly broadcasted coded messages for the resistance organisations. After the liberation of the south part of The Netherlands, the broadcasts of Radio Oranje were gradually been taken over by Radio Herrijzend Nederland (The Netherlands Revived) in Eindhoven.

 More about Radio Oranje
 More about Radio Herrijzend Nederland


Cold War
After WWII, during the Cold War, the Netherlands had a Stay-Behind Organisation (SBO), named O&I (later (A en B), that was part of a large pan-European network of secretly trained agents, that would be activated in case of an invasion by the Soviet Union (USSR). For the SBO, the country developed its own spy radio set – the ZO-47 – but later reverted to radio sets from its American and British and German partners. It also took part in the development of the pan-European radio FS-5000 (HARPOON), which became operational shortly before the SBOs were dismantled.

 Stay-Behind Organisation O&I
 Cold War spy radio sets


References
  1. Wikipedia, Netherlands
    Retrieved December 2020.
Further information
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Crypto Museum. Created: Friday 20 May 2016. Last changed: Thursday, 18 November 2021 - 19:31 CET.
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