Federal'naya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti – Rossiyskoy Federatsii
FSB (Russian: ФСБ) is the current
Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation, established
on 12 April 1995 as the successor to the KGB.
The agency is responsible
for internal and border security, counter-intelligence, counter-terrorism
and surveillance, and was established at the end of the Cold War,
following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. The FSB is mainly
responsible for the internal security of the Russian state, whereas
espionage and foreign operations are the responsibility of the
Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR)
and the Main Intelligence Directorate (GRU).
The direct predecessor of the FSB was the short-lived FSK, the Federal
Counterintelligence Service, which itself was one of the successors
of the KGB, when the latter was dissolved at the end of the Cold War ,
In 1995, under President Boris Yeltsin, the FSK was reorganised and became the
Federal Security Service (FSB). In 2003, the responsibilities of the FSB
were widened by absorbing the Border Guard Service
of the Russian Federation (PS) and also the Federal Agency of
Government Communications and Information (FAPSI)
— the Russian equivalent
of the American NSA and the British GCHQ.
The Border Service was actually the Main Directorate of the Border Troops
of the former KGB, whilst FAPSI
had been formed in September 1991 as a merger of the
KGB's 8th Main Directorate (Government Communications)
and the 16th Directorate (Electronic Intelligence).
➤ Predecessor: KGB
One of the methods used by
Russian intelligence services
to send messages to agents and intelligence officers
in foreign countries, is the so-called
One-Way Voice Link (OWVL),
also known as
mysterious radio stations on the
short wave radio band, that broadcast long strings of spoken numbers.
Such stations were frequently spotted during the 1960s, 70s and 80s.
The number strings represent coded messages that are generally encrypted
by means of a
One-Time Pad (OTP) cipher.
Most Numbers Stations
have disappered after the end of the
but some are still active today. Although most of them are
operated by the
and the GRU,
they are often (falsely)
attributed to the FSB (and previously to its predecessor,
the KGB). The following Russian Numbers Stations
were still active from Russia in 2019:
Any links shown in red are currently unavailable.
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© Crypto Museum. Created: Sunday 24 November 2019. Last changed: Monday, 28 June 2021 - 07:36 CET.