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KLL-1
Key tape reader

KLL-1 is a key tape reader for cryptographic appliances, developed around 1986 by ANT in Backnang (Germany) 1 as an alternative (clone) to the American KOI-18 key tape reader, which was always in short supply. The device was used by the Germany Army and by the armies of other NATO countries for transferring cryptographic keys – also known as Transmission Encryption Keys (TEKs) – into crypto equipments and key transfer devices. It supports the DS-102 protocol – developed by the US National Security Agency (NSA) – and can transfer keys of variable length.

The device is housed in a military green die-cast aluminium enclosure that measures 135 x 64 x 38 mm and weights 342 grams (without battery).

Contrary to other key loading equipment, such as the KYK-13 and the KSP-1, the KLL-1 does not have an internal static memory to hold the key, but transfers it directly from 8-level 2 paper tape to a crypto device (or a key transfer device), just like the USA's KOI-18 of which it is a clone. A key tape is entered into the tape reader that is located under a hinged lid, and should be pulled through the reader manually at regular speed.
  
KLL-1 with key tape

The device is SAVILLE-compatible, which means that it can be used with all crypto equipment and key transfer devices that can handle the 128-bit 3 keys used by speech encryption devices that feature the SAVILLE algorithm, such as the KY-57, KY-99, Spendex 40 and the Elcrovox 1-4. Such devices generally uses the DS-102 protocol in combination with a standard 6-pin U-229 socket and a 1:1 transfer cable, for transferring the keys. When unloaded, the KLL-1 is unclassified [4].

Apart from ANT, the KLL-1 was available under the Siemens, Bosch, Rohde & Schwarz and other brand names. The device is also known by its National Stock Number NSN 5810-12-314-6484. In Germany, the KSP-1 is currently being replaced by the Thales Data Transfer Device DTD-II [5].

  1. According to a Siemens brochure of 1991 [2], the KLL-1 was developed by ANT in cooperation with Siemens. This is supported by the fact that the custom chip inside the device is made by Siemens.
  2. 8-bit ASCII data format, also known as IA No. 5 or ITA No. 5.  More
  3. SAVILLE is a secret cryptographic algorithm, that was jointly developed by GCHQ and the NSA. It uses an 120 bit secret KEY, with an 8-bit checksum.  More

KLL-1 with lid closed
KLL-1 with lid close, seen from the rear
KLL-1 with lid open
KLL-1 with lid open
Battery compartment
Pulling a key tape through the KLL-1
KLL-1 with key tape
KLL-1 production version (right) and prototype (left)
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KLL-1 with lid closed
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KLL-1 with lid close, seen from the rear
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KLL-1 with lid open
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KLL-1 with lid open
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Battery compartment
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Pulling a key tape through the KLL-1
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KLL-1 with key tape
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KLL-1 production version (right) and prototype (left)

Features
The diagram below gives a quick overview of the features of the KLL-1 and demonstrates how it is used to transfer a SAVILLE key from punched paper tape to a KSP-1 key transfer device. Once programmed, the KSP-1 can be used to transfer the key to a cryptographic device like a crypto telephone or a trunk encryption unit. Instead of the KSP-1, it is also possible to use the KYK-13.

Using the KLL-1 to load keys into a KSP-1 key transfer device

Note that a transfer operation should always be initiated from the host device. In the above case this means that it should be initiated from the KSP-1 by pressing the START-button twice (once to turn it ON and once to initiate the transfer), after which the key tape should be pulled through the reader at a constant speed. After a successful transfer, the letter 'P' appears in the display.

Using a KLL-1 to transfer keys to a KSP-1
Using a KLL-1 to transfer keys to a KYK-13
U-229 socket
Holding a KLL-1 in the hand
Battery compartment
1:1 transfer cable
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Using a KLL-1 to transfer keys to a KSP-1
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Using a KLL-1 to transfer keys to a KYK-13
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U-229 socket
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Holding a KLL-1 in the hand
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Battery compartment
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1:1 transfer cable

Interior
The interior of the DLL-1 can be reached by removing four large bolts from the corners of the top panel, after which the top panel can be removed. The electronics are mounted on a single PCB that is mounted to the rear of the top panel. The case shell only holds the 6-pin U-229 socket.

The image on the right shows the PCB mounted to the rear of the top panel. The white section at the center of the PCB, is the actual tape reader, that consists of eight thin spring contacts. Apart from a single 20-pin custom LSI 1 chip, the PCB does not contain any active components.

The board has two connectors: one for the 3.6V battery and one for the wiring to the U-229 socket. In the image, the battery is connected (via the red and black wires), whilst the U-229 wiring has been removed. Note that the device does not contain any memory for key storage.
  
KLL-1 interior

The battery is only used for powering the circuit (i.e. the custom chip). The device is activated automatically when a tape is entered into the reader. The clock pulses for the DS-102 transfer protocol are generated by the holes in the key tape when pulling the tape through.

  1. LSI = Large Scale Integration.

KLL-1 interior
Interior
Interior
Filtering
Siemens custom chip
Prototype interior
Prototype interior
Prototype interior
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KLL-1 interior
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Interior
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Interior
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Filtering
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Siemens custom chip
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Prototype interior
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Prototype interior
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Prototype interior

Branding
The KLL-1 was marketed by the following companies:

Connection
Below is the pinout of the U-229 socket. For a more detailed description, check  this page.

  1. GND
  2. not connected
  3. ACK
  4. DATA
  5. CLK
  6. not connected
    Click to see more
References
  1. Fill Devices KLL1, KEV1, KSP1
    ZfCh 7049 E. ANT, April 1987. NATO RESTRICTED.

  2. Siemens, Encryption Equipments from Siemens
    Brochure, 1991. p. 8.

  3. Rohde & Schwarz, KLL1 Key Tape Reader and KSP1 Key Transfer Device
    Product leaflet, version 01.00, November 2006.

  4. Defensie Materieel Organisatie, Controlled Cryptographic / Comset Items (CCI's)
    NC 023005. Dutch Department of Defence. RESTRICTED.

  5. NATO NCI Agency, DataTransfer Device DTD-II
    Retrieved September 2019.
Further information
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Crypto Museum. Created: Sunday 03 September 2017. Last changed: Sunday, 15 September 2019 - 15:18 CET.
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