Integrated digital communication network
ZODIAC was the codename of an integrated communication system that was
used by the Dutch Armed Forces from 1979 until the early 2000s.
ZODIAC is an acronym for
Zone Digitaal Automatisch Cryptografisch beveiligd.
ZODIAC marked the beginning of the digital era as all telephone and
teletype traffic (Telex) was digitised and automated.
ZODIAC was based on the DELTACS  tactical area communications system,
which was a joint development of Hollanse Signaalapparaten (HSA) in
Huizen (Netherlands) and GTE Government Systems Corporation in
Massachusetts (USA). All crypto-equipment was developed by
HSA's sister company
Philips Usfa (later: Philips Crypto).
The project started in 1975 and was complete in 1987.
The last units were delivered in 1991.
Advanced digital cryptographic solutions, all developed by the Dutch
manufacturer Philips Usfa,
allowed greater security for an increased number of users.
ZODIAC was designed to be (partly) interoperable with the equipment of
other NATO countries (see below).
The image above shows a Dutch Army communication shelter with a complete
ZODIAC automated switch, being operated by two men. The interfaces and
controls are on the left, whilst the computer is mounted in the rack at
The image was taken from the June 1984 issue of Philips Telecommunication
Review, which is available for download below .
In the early 2000s, ZODIAC was gradually phased out and replaced by
the newer TITAAN system.
Some components of the ZODIAC system were used however in the first
stages of the TITAAN
implementation, such as the BVO-M
for which TNO developed a new interface .
The last ZODIAC units were released from service in 2007.
In the early 1970s, the Dutch Army started looking for a new communication
system that would replace the ageing manual telephone switches. As most
European countries were developing their own communication system at that time,
the so-called EUROCOM group was established. The aim was to establish a set
of parameters, to allow the various NATO countries to communicate with
one another by using the EUROCOM standards
Around 1975, the ZODIAC project was born. It was the Dutch contribution to develop a complete automated secure communication system for use by their
national forces. Holland Signaal (HSA) won the initial NLG 200 million
contract to start development of a suitable system. As HSA was part of the
multi-national Philips organization, they commissioned Philips
Telecommunicatie Industrie (PTI) to carry out a system
study in 1978/79, whilst Philips Usfa studied the cryptographic implications.
In 1980/81, this resulted in development orders for Philips Usfa, for the
design of BVO-M, BVO-T and the crypto heart of the digital phone 'DBT'
A few years later, the first machines were delivered, and in 1987 the ZODIAC
system was completed; 12 years after its inception.
Development of ZODIAC took place in five stages:
In the first stage, the existing network was completely digitised.
All digitised signals were 'stacked' or 'bundled' together in a single
data stream, so that they could be encrypted at once.
From the user's perspective, it was a fully transparent system that
offered a high level of security.
The first experiments were carried out in 1979 when the various stages
of the Delta Modulation equipment were tested.
In the second stage, all teletype traffic (Telex) was automated.
the manually operated Telex networks were replaced by ATS -
Automatisch Telegrafie Systeem (Automated Telegraphy System).
ATS was introduced in 1980.
After this, developments slowed down somewhat.
Despite the new network, it still took too long to connect a subscriber to
another party and parts of the network were sometime 'off the air' for
- Automatic Telephone Exchange
In the 3rd stage, the manually operated telephone exchange was replaced
by a fully automatic one. This allowed users to initiate a call or send
data themselves, whithout the need for an operator.
- More nodes
In this stage, the number of nodes in the network, was increased
As the introduction of the new automatic exchanges was delayed several
times, it was decided to combine stages 3 and 4.
- New equipment
At the same time, new equipment was introduced, such as a Secure Digital
Phone called DBT
(Ditigaal Beveiligde Telefoon) and a PC-based Telex system called PCT.
In 1987 ZODIAC was complete, after it had passed all tests with flying colours.
- BVO-M - Bundel Vercijfer Ontcijfer apparaat
2Mb/s digital unit for the encryption and decryption of multiple
bundled data streams. Officially designated UA-8244 or MUCOLEX II and backwards
compatible with the existing 1Mb MUCOLEX I (2Mb/s) units (see below).
- BVO-T - Bundel Vercijfer Ontcijfer apparaat
2Mb/s digital unit for the encryption and decryption of multiple
bundled data streams. Officially designed UA-8245 or MUCOLEX III and
compatible with the standard US Trunk Encryption Device (TED)
Intended for interoperability between ZODIAC and the radio systems of other
- DBT - Digitaal Beveiligde Telefoon (Spendex 50)
Advanced ruggedized wide-band digital crypto phone, designated UA-8246 or Spendex-50,
developed by Philips Usfa. It used Delta Modulation,
and allowed secure speech and data to be transferred at 16-32 Kb/s
using the SAVILLE cryptographic algorithm.
- PCT - Personal Computer Telex
PC-based replacement of the existing teletype (Telex) units, consisting of a
robust portable PC (slightly larger than a laptop) running DOS and suitable software.
- MUCOLEX - Bundel Vercijfer-Ontcijfertoestel
Ruggedised 1Mb/s digital unit for encryption and decryption of multiple
bundled data streams in the field. Officially designated UA-8451 or MUCOLEX I.
Designed and delivered during the 1970s and
already in widespread use when ZODIAC came into service.
- DELTAMUX - Digital line multiplexer
DELTAMUX was a European standard (EUROCOM) that allowed digital switches
from a variety of countries and manufacturers to talk to each other.
Each DELTAMUX unit allowed 16, 32 or 64 subscriber lines of 16 or 32 kbit/s
to be multiplexed into a 256, 512 or 1024 kbit/s bit-stream.
Mobile DELTAMUX units were also developed for the integration into communication
ZODIAC can be connected to and is (partly) interoperable with a variety of
other systems and communication standards, including the following:
- NATO Alternate Mobile Way HQ
In 1993, the Dutch Ministry of Defense was in desperate need for new
personnel. As part of a nation-wide campaign they aired a series of five
different commercials on TV. The video below is the forth in this series.
It shows brief glimpses of the ZODIAC system in operation.
The Royal Dutch Signals Museum (Museum Verbindingsdienst) has a
complete and operational ZODIAC system that can be demonstrated to the public.
It was rebuilt from the contents of a former communications shelter,
and consists of a complete HSA digital switch with delta-modulation
(DELTAMUX), a series of Philips
some DBT phones
and PCT telex units.
The images below were taken at the Royal Dutch Signals museum
in July 2008, shortly before the museum closed down.
Due do the low lighting conditions and the absence of a flash light,
the quality of the images is somewhat sub-standard.
At the right is the heart of the 68000-based digital switch.
Note that the Crypto Ignition Key (CIK) is missing from the
in image #5,
but that it is present on the DBT phones mounted inside the shelter,
visible in images
Secure communication was only possible when the CIK was present on
The shelter was connected to the rest of the world through a variety of
mediums, including land-lines and radio links. Als in the museum is (was)
a complete communication truck with DELTAMUX units, line interfaces,
radio trunks, etc. Check the rightmost three images below.
Hollandse Signaal Apparaten
Former Philips subsidary, specializing in the development and production of
equipment for the Department of Defense (DoD). Later sold to Thales.
Philips Telecommunicatie Industrie
Philips subsidary based in Hilversum (Netherlands), specializing
in telecommunication solutions and automated switches.
Trunk Encryption Device
cipher device for muliplexed digital data streams, used as a
common standard between NATO countries.
- Bart Omloo, Afscheid van ZODIAC
Intercom, 2004, Volume 2, p. 36-37 (Dutch)
- G.J. Huisman, De geboorte van ZODIAC
Intercom, 2009, Volume 4, p. 53-55 (Dutch)
- Jane's Military Communications, DELTACS, ZODIAC
Fifteenth Edition, 1994-95, p. 803.
- AJW van Daal & P van der Vlist, DELTACS - a versatile tactical communication system
Philips Telecommunicatie Industrie BV (PTI), Hilversum (Netherlands), 1984.
Reprint from Philips Telecommunication Review, Vol. 42, No. 2, pages 74-89.
- A. Regtien & HW Evers,
TITAAN: Flexibel en veelzijdig, maar ook veilig en betrouwbaar
Intercom, 2001, Volume 4, p. 58-59 (Dutch)
- Koninklijke Landmacht, ZODIAC (Dutch)
Published by the Human Resource Department of the Dutch Army. 1988.
Crypto Museum #301329.
- Holland Signaal, DELTACS Leaflet
Delta-modulation Tactical Area Communications System (English). 1987.
- MJ van de Fliert, PTT op Wielen, verbindingen altijd 'op scherp'
Description of ZODIAC in action (Dutch). Legerkoerier. December 1988.
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