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PAN-2000
Panoramic monitoring receiver and direction finder

PAN-2000 was a custom-made intercept and monitoring receiver, with optional direction finding capabilities, developed in the mid-1990s by ELCOM GmbH in München (Germany), exclusively for use by the Dutch Radio Monitoring Service (AT). It was the successor to the PAN-1000 and was intended for locating clandestine radio stations (pirates) and other sources of radio interference.

The system is suitable for monitoring signals up to 2000 MHz and is built around an existing commercial ICOM IC-R9000 communications receiver, expanded with an ELCOM FFT processor with display, an intuitive remote control unit and a Taiyo direction finder with concealed antenna.

In order to reduce radio interference caused by the individual components of the system, both the remote control unit (console) and the wide-screen panoramic display are connected to the main unit via optical wiring, for which low-cost audio fibers are used, known as TOSLINK [7].
  
Complete PAN-2000 intercept system

The complete system is about the same size as its predecessor — PAN-1000 — and was usually mounted in the trunk of a regular car, with the controls and displays mounted at a convenient position near the driver seat. The PAN-2000 was introduced in 1995 and gradually replaced the existing PAN-1000 systems over the course of the following years. In total, ~ 20 systems were built. Between 2005 and 2007 they were gradually replaced by their successor, the PAN-3000.

 History of the PAN-2000

Complete PAN-2000 intercept system ELCOM FFT Processor ELCOM FFT display in action PAN-2000 remote control unit (RCU) TD-L1706 direction finder TAIYO compass display EF-353 antenna - top view Dare CR-3000/C frequency counter with signal-strength indicator
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Complete PAN-2000 intercept system
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ELCOM FFT Processor
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ELCOM FFT display in action
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PAN-2000 remote control unit (RCU)
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TD-L1706 direction finder
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TAIYO compass display
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EF-353 antenna - top view
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Dare CR-3000/C frequency counter with signal-strength indicator

Setup
The diagram below shows the setup of a complete PAN-2000 system. At the bottom is the ICOM IC-R9000 communications receiver, that has several links to the ELCOM FFT Processor just above it. They form the heart of the PAN-2000 system. The FFT Processor is fed by the IF output of the receiver, from which it creates the spectrum display. At the right is the CONSOLE that is located between the front seats of the car. It is modelled after the remote control unit of the PAN-1000.

Compass Antenna Antenna TAIYO Selector Display FFT Processor ICOM Counter Console Speaker Speaker

To the left of the FFT Processor is the TAIYO direction finder, which is basically a stand-alone system connected to the IF output of the receiver. It controls the 4-segment flat antenna that is hidden in the car's sunroof, and drives the compass display at the left. The switch box and the RF pre-amplifier are integrated with the antenna. At the top right is a stand-alone frequency counter with built-in field-strength indicator that instantly shows the frequency of any nearby signal. It is connected to the console, allowing the receiver to automatically tune to the displayed frequency.

Rear side of the ELCOM FFT Processor


Power distribution
In a mobile environment the entire system must be powered by the 12V DC voltage of the car battery. The 12V from the battery should be applied to the 19" rackmount FFT Processor, which acts as a central hub. From there the other items are powered. The console is used as a remote control unit. The diagram below shows how the various PAN-2000 modules are powered [3].

Console FFT Processor Receiver TAIYO Compass Antenna Display Counter

At the top left is the raw 12V DC voltage from the regular car battery. It is passed to the Console which switches and distributes it to the other peripherals and to the switch input (start) of the FFT Processor. Inside this unit is a solid state relay that controls the internal DC/DC converters and hence the 12V and 15V supply to the TAIYO direction finder and the ICOM receiver respectively. The TAIYO TD-L1706 main unit provides the +5V and +9V voltages for its display and antenna.

A separate 12V battery was used for powering the FFT Processor, the ICOM receiver and the TAIYO direction finder, as they could potentially exhaust the main car battery when the vehicle is not running. By using a separate battery (that is charged together with the regular battery), it remains possible to start the car, even when the 2nd battery is flat. Another advantage of this approach is that the equipment does not suffer from a voltage drop when the car is started.

Rear view Connections at the rear Optical fibers Thicker (and longer) optical fiber Close-up of the optical connectors ELCOM FFT Display ELCOM FFT display in action
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Rear view
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Connections at the rear
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Optical fibers
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Thicker (and longer) optical fiber
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Close-up of the optical connectors
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ELCOM FFT Display
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ELCOM FFT display in action

Parts
ICOM IC-R9000 communications receiver ELCOM FFT Processor ELCOM FFT Display ELCOM Remote control unit (RCU) TAIYO radio direction finder TD-L1706
RDF
TAIYO compass display Concealed flat directional antenna TAIYO EF-353 DARE frequency counter
ICOM IC-R9000
Unlike the earlier PAN-1000 system — which ad been designed completely from scratch — the PAN-2000 was built around an existing ICOM IC-R9000 communications receiver. This was done to reduce development time, but also to reduce the cost of a complete system.

The ICOM receiver was modified at several points, mainly to reduce spurious signals and to make the connections at the rear more robust.

 More information

  
ICOM IC-R9000 communications receiver

ELCOM FFT processor
At the heart of the system is the FFT Processor that was developed especially for the Dutch Radio Monitoring Service by ELCOM GmbH. It takes the IF signal from the ICOM receiver and converts it into a frequency spectrum display, using hardware-based Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) functions.

The FFT processor is also responsible for the user interface (UI). It takes the input from the console, and delivers a visual output on the wide-screen EL display described below.

In order to reduce the interference caused by the system itself, all communication between the FFT processor, the display and the console, is via optical wiring. This has the added advantage that the controls can be placed further from the processor. In practice, the FFT processor was mounted in the trunk of the car, with the console and the display near the dashboard of the car.
  
ELCOM FFT Processor

The FFT processor can be powered either from the AC mains, or from a 12V DC source like the battery of a car. In practice it was usually powered from a mains voltage, even when used in a mobile invironment, using a power inverter. A more detailed description can be found below.

ELCOM FFT display
The output of the FFT Processor is passed by the VIDEO card, to a flat-panel electroluminescent (EL) display with a resolution of 512 x 256 pixels, which was state-of-the-art in 1995. The left half of the screen is used for displaying parameters. The right half holds the spectrum display.

At the rear, the display has threaded holes, to allow it to be mounted on – or close to – the dashboard. It is powered by 12V DC supplied by the console, and is connected to the main FFT Processor via four optical wires; one for each signal: luminance (VID), vertical synchronisation (VS), horizontal sync (HS) and pixel clock (CLK).

At the time of the development of the system, video monitors were virtually always based on a cathode-ray tube (CRT), and electro­luminescent displays (EL) were the only ones that were flat enough for mounting on a vehicle dashboard.
  
ELCOM FFT display in action

A major challenge with this display (or any other display for that matter) was that it had to be bright enough for use in direct sunlight, and yet dimmable enough to allow its use at night without attracting attention. For this reason, the display has a luminance adjustment knob at the left side. For use in bright sunlight, a hood was somethimes mounted in front of the display.

Displays of this type typically produce a lot of unwanted radio interference (RFI) that can be picked up by the receiver. As this is undesired – particularly in this application – it was decided to place a metal coated glass in front of the display. A thin metal grid in front of the display was also tried, but appeared to take away too much light and caused unwanted moiré patterns [9].

Console
One of the most important parts of the PAN-2000 system is the remote control unit (RCU) or console. As it had to be operated by the investigating officer whilst driving the car, its functions had to be intuitive, so that he or she could find each button quickly without looking down on it.

The image on the right shows the console of the PAN-2000 which is clearly modelled after the RCU of the earlier PAN-1000 system. The unit was fitted in between the two front seats of the car, aside the handbrake, so that it was within reach of the operator's right hand. The RCU has only two large rotary knobs: one for tuning the frequency, and one of adjusting the volume. All other functions are controlled by push-buttons.

The higher part has two built-in lamps that illuminate the push-buttons on the right half, so that they can be found more easily in the dark.
  
PAN-2000 remote control unit (RCU)

The rectangular black hand-rest – at the left rear – is in fact a small hinged lid below which a numeric keypad is hidden. This keypad can be used to select memory positions and for entering a frequency directly. At the front side are the main ON/OFF switch, an ON/OFF switch for the radio direction finder, and a push-button to select between logarithmic or linear signal-strengh scale.

All connections of the RCU are at its rear side. There are two DIN sockets: one for a speaker and one (with a fixed output level) for a recording device. A female DB9 socket carries the incoming and outgoing 12V power lines, plus the audio signal from the ICOM IC-R9000 receiver. The RCU is connected to the FFT Processor by means of a TOSLINK optical fiber link, just like the display, to eliminate any radio interference on the intercepted RF signal, caused by the equipment itself.

PAN-2000 remote control unit (RCU) Seen from the front right Seen from the front left Connections at the rear Tuning Opening the cover over the keypad RCU with keypad cover open - seen from the left PAN-2000 RCU (right) compared to the RCU of the PAN-1000 (left)
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PAN-2000 remote control unit (RCU)
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Seen from the front right
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Seen from the front left
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Connections at the rear
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Tuning
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Opening the cover over the keypad
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RCU with keypad cover open - seen from the left
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PAN-2000 RCU (right) compared to the RCU of the PAN-1000 (left)





TAIYO direction finder   TD-L1706
Although the PAN-2000 system can be used without it, the TAIYO TD-L1706 direction finder can make the job of locating a transmitter a lot easier. It uses a special antenna and takes the IF-output from the IC-R9000, from which it calculates the angle of incidence of the signal.

 More information
  
TD-L1706 direction finder

TAIYO compass display
The output from the TAIYO TD-L1706 direction finder is delivered to a special compass display that can be mounted at a convenient place on the dashboard of the car. It displays the angle of incidence of the intercepted radio signal on a 3-digit LED display at the centre of the front panel.

Around the circumference of the display is a circle with 72 red LEDs, one of which points in the direction of the signal. A switch at the left side can be used to turn the 3-digit display off.

 More information

  
TAIYO compass display

Concealed antenna   EF-353 - wanted item
A special flat antenna was used with the TAIYO direction finder. In consists of four antenna element in a special arrangement, mounted in the circular enclosure shown on the right.

The antenna was usually mounted in the top roof of the car, disguised as a sunroof, for which it was modified somewhat. Inside the disc is a fast antenna switcher and a pre-amplifier.

 More information
  
EF-353 antenna - top view

Frequency counter   CR-3000/C
Most intercept vehicles of the Dutch Radio Monitoring Service were also equipped with a stand-alone frequency counter that could be mounted anywhere in the car. It had its own antenna and was able onto lock to any nearby radio signal and display its frequency on the 8-digit display.

The 1/100 output of the counter is connected to the RATELAAR input of the console. When the operator presses the console's COUNT button, the intercepted frequency – visible on the display of the counter – is copied to the PAN-2000, which in turn passes it on to the ICOM receiver.

The frequency counter was developed by the Dutch company DARE, and was also supplied to the Dutch Police for installation in some of their surveillance vehicles.

 More information

  
Dare CR-3000/C frequency counter with signal-strength indicator

Accessories
6-input antenna selector 4Ω loudspeaker 1 x Optical TOSLINK wire between Console and FFT Processor 4 x Optical TOSLINK wire between Display and FFT Processor Power cables
Antenna selector
The simple antenna selector shown in the image on the right was used as part of the PAN-2000. It allows various antennas to be connected to the input of the PAN-2000 (and, hence, the Icom IC-R9000 receiver). The selector was operated by means of a rotary selector that was mounted near the dashboard of the car.

One of the connected antennas was a simple vertical one that was mounted on the car. Another one was the directional antenna used with the TAIYO direction finder.
  
6-input antenna selector

Speaker
The audio LINE output from the ICOM IC-R9000 receiver, is supplied directly to the Console, where it is amplified to speaker level. A suitable speaker, such as the one shown in the image on the right, should be connected to the 5-pin 240° DIN socket at the rear of the console.

The audio volume can be adjusted with a potentiometer on the console.
  
Speaker

TOSLINK 1
The Console is used as a direct input for the FFT Processor, similar to a keyboard of a PC. For this, a dedicated serial port on the I/O card is used.

To avoid radio interference (RFI), an optical data link is used for this. The image on the right shows the optical fibre that was used for the remote connection. It is known as TOSLINK and is commonly available from audio stores.
  
Thicker (and longer) optical fiber

TOSLINK 4
For the same reason (RFI), the video signals from the graphics card are passed to the FFT Display via four individual TOSLINK optical wires.

Note that because of the fact that the TOSLINK sockets on the video card are recessed, optical wires with narrow plugs should be used, as otherwise they might not fit. As an alternative, the video card can be modified.
  
Close-up of the optical connectors

Cables
For a complete setup, quite a few power and interconnection cables are needed. The image on the right shows a breakout box through which the 12V DC power source should be supplied to the FFT Processor and to the Console. The entire system is enabled by setting the POWER switch at the front of the Console to ON. This activates a solid-state relay inside the FFT Controller, which in turn enables all connected peripherals.

The FFT Controller supplies the power for the ICOM IC-R9000 receiver and for the TAIYO DF unit, for which a separate cable is required.
  
Basic cable set for supplying power to the FFT processor and the Console

The following connections are needed:

  • 12V from battery to breakout box
  • 12V from breakout box to PAN-2000 and to Console (via DB9)
  • 12V from Console to FFT Display and to Counter
  • 12V from FFT Controller to TAIYO DF unit
  • 15V from FFT controller to ICOM receiver
  • Audio from ICOM receiver to Console (via breakout box)
  • TOSLINK wire from Console to FFT Controller
  • 4 x TOSLINK wire from FFT controller to FFT Display
  • Discriminator output from ICOM receiver to FFT controller 1
  • 10.7 MHz output from ICOM receiver to FFT Controller
  • Frequency counter (1/100) to Console (Ratelaar)
  • 3 x antenna connection from FFT controller to ICOM receiver
  • Console speaker output to external speaker
  • Antenna to FFT Controller
  1. This requires a modification of the ICOM IC-R9000 receiver.

6-input antenna selector Optical fibers Thicker (and longer) optical fiber Close-up of the optical connectors Basic cable set for supplying power to the FFT processor and the Console Power wiring for Display and Counter Speaker
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6-input antenna selector
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Optical fibers
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Close-up of the optical connectors
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Basic cable set for supplying power to the FFT processor and the Console
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Power wiring for Display and Counter
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Speaker

Interior
The core part of the PAN-2000 system is the FFT Processor that was custom-built by ELCOM for the Dutch Radio Monitoring Service. It is housed in a 19" 3U rackmount enclosure and consists of several plug-in modules that can be accessed from the rear side, as shown in this diagram:

Rear side of the ELCOM FFT Processor

In the above diagram, we have identified each plug-in unit with a name. These names are used in the circuit desciptions below, and also in the description of the pinouts of the various sockets, further down this page. The folowing plug-in units and modules are present:

The FFT Processor is built around an AT96/ISA96 1 bus system, as developed by IBM in the mid-1980s. It is basically a 16-bit variant of the 8-bit IBM XT-Bus architecture, intended for industrial applications. Over the years, a wide range of companies produced plug-in cards for this bus [4]. Note that part of the system is built around the AMS-bus (IEEE 796), which is different from the AT96/ISA96 bus standard [8]. The two busses are connected via an ISA96/AMS bridge interface.

  1. ISA = Industry Standard Architecture.  Wikipedia

Block diagram
The diagram below shows how the various modules are connected. Central to the system is the CPU card with a 16-bit Intel 386 processor (CPU), that is connected to an ISA96 expansion bus. This bus has a slot for an (optional) VGA graphics card (needed for configuration of the system) and an interface that controls the IF Interface directly above it. The data from the A/D converter on the IF Interface is passed directly to the FFT processor via the AMS bus (blue), that is on the other side of the Bridge. All other peripheral interfaces are also connected to the AMS-bus.

PAN-2000 FFT Processor block diagram
IF unit Data acquisition VGA CPU CT-17 PSU Memory FFT card Video card I/O card Bridge

Above the hardware-based FFT processor is the graphics controller that delivers the image for the FFT display. Above that is the memory card that holds the firmware (EPROMs) and battery-backed RAM for storing the frequencies and other settings. The I/O card controls the antenna relay and the attenuator. It also hold the optical interface to the Console. Finally, at the top of the diagram, is the power supply unit (PSU) and two DC-DC converters: one for 24V and one for 15V.



Position of the card - seen from the top


PSU
The power supply unit (PSU) is located at the far right of the case (when viewed from the rear) and takes about ¼ of the total space. It consists of a mains transformer and a series of DC/DC converters, that convert the 12V DC secundary voltage into the voltages needed by the circuits.

Due to this approach, the unit can be powered from the mains as well as from the 12V of a car battery. Power is distributed to the plug-in cards via a wide backplane, alongside the data lines. The generated voltages are 5V, 15V and 24V.
  
Various PSU modules

IF Interface
One of the most complex parts of the FFT Processor is the IF Unit, which is also the only analogue part of the device. It is mounted along the left side of the case (viewed from the rear) and is completely shielded. It takes its input from the 10.7 MHz output of the ICOM receiver.

At the far end of the card is an Analog Devices AD872 A/D converter that samples or digitizes the signal and passes it directly to the FFT controller on the AMS bus.  Datasheet
  
IF interface card - cover removed

IF Controller
This card controls the functions of the IF interface and its A/D converter. It ensures that the correct band segement are sampled and sent to the FFT controller on the AMS bus.

The first card – visible in the image on the right – handles the interfacing to the AT96/ISA96 bus. It also holds a series of configuration jumpers. The card at the bottom controls the IF Interface. The two cards are inter-connected via an extra 96-way DIN connector, located inbetween them.
  
Data acquisition card

CPU card

The image on the right shows the central processing unit, or CPU, that controls the entire system. It bascially contains a standard 16-bit IBM PC with an Intel 386 processor on a single Eurocard-size PCB (10 x 16 cm). At the time, it was a standard component for an industrial AT96/ISA96 system, made by ELCODATA in Deggendorf (Germany).   
CPU card

Remote
To the right of the CPU card is a BNC socket, marked ICOM REMOTE. It should be connected to the REMOTE socket of the ICOM IC-R9000 receiver. Behind the panel is not a plug-in card, but rather a cable that leads to the ICOM CT-17 interface box shown in the image on the right.

This interface is basically a level converter, that converts the serial remote interface of the ICOM receiver into a standard RS232 data signal. The output from the CT-17 interface is connected to the 2nd COM port of the CPU card, and does not use hardware handshaking.

  
ICOM CT-17 communication interface (level converter)

I/O card

The input/output card (I/O) is responsible for communication with the user. It holds an optical interface to the remote control unit (RCU), which is handled by a separate SAB-80C537 micro­controller made by Siemens. This leaves the main 386 CPU free to handle the FFT conversion.

The I/O card also handles the selection of the appropriate antenna input of the ICOM IC-R9000 receiver and the setting of the attenuator. In the original technical documentation, this card was known as the RF-Swich [A].
  
I/O board

Memory card
The image on the right shows the memory card which is connected to the AMS-bus. It has 8 memory sockets of which 4 are populated. At the bottom left are the EPROMs which hold the firmware of the system. As a 16-bit CPU is used, there are two EPROMs (each covering 8-bits).

Above the EPROMs are two CMOS RAMs with a capacity of 8KB each. At the top left is a 3V battery unit which retains the data stored in the CMOS RAM chips.
  
Memory board

FFT controller
One of the most difficult tasks of the PAN-2000 is performed by the FFT card, which is installed between the memory card (MEM) and the display interface (VIDEO). It takes the samples directly from the Inter Frequency (IF) card, and converts it to the frequency domain so that it can be displayed on the screen.

This conversion is done by means of a so-called Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm, which requires a lot of processing power [5]. In the PAN-2000 this is done with a special TMC2310 FFT Controller, made by Raytheon in the US [6].
  
FFT Controller board

Video card
The graphics for the panoramic FFT display are delivered by the special video card that is shown in the image on the right. It is fitted to the right of the FFT card and consists of two PCBs: (1) the actual video card and (2) an optical interface. It is built around a TS68483A graphics controller.

Each of the video signals – luminance, horizontal sync (HS), vertical sync (VS) and pixel clock (CLK) – are carried to the display via a separate optical fiber. The optical fibre sockets are recessed, to avoid damage when the unit is installed in the trunk of a car. This can be modified however.

  
Video card

Bridge
In the PAN-2000 FFT Processor, two different BUS-systems are used: the ISA96-bus (AT96-bus) and the AMS-bus. Although the cards for thse bus systems are very similar, they are not compatible. For this reason, the FFT Processor has two different backplanes that are linked by a so-called bus interface or bridge.

The image on the right shows the bridge card which is mounted behind the two backplanes.
  
Bus bridge card

BIOS configuration
A major problem with the design of the PAN-2000 is the fact that — like most IBM-compatible PC platforms — it has a BIOS 1 for which the settings are stored in battery-backed CMOS RAM. For this, it is common practice to use a NiCd battery, that is recharged when the device is powered.

As the PAN-2000 was made more than 20 years ago, the NiCd battery is likely to be worn out by now, as a result of which the BIOS configuration will have been lost, rendering the device useless.

In order to re-configure the BIOS, it is necessary to temporarily install an AT/ISA96 VGA graphics card in the empty slot (marked 'X' in the diagram above) and connect a VGA-compatible monitor (640 x 480). Also required is a PS2-compatible keyboard, that should be connected directly to one of the headers on the CPU card. This card is not installed by default and is extremely rare.
  
Optional VGA card for AT96/ISA96 bus. Photograph kindly supplied by Nico van Dongen [1].

Many thanks to Nico van Dongen (PA3ESA) for finding the only working VGA card in the country and getting it on loan temporarily. With this card he was able to reconfigure the BIOS of the PAN-2000 system featured here and bring it back to life. He also replaced the NiCd backup battery.

TTF Processor case with top lid removed Top view Various PSU modules DC/DC converters PSU Mains transformer 12V DC input and output with filtering Bus bridge card
IF interface and data acquisition card IF interface card - cover removed IF interface card Close-up of IF font-end Back-end with A/D converter Data acquisition card Data acquisition bus card Data acquisition interface
op view Mixer Memory board Memory board (EPROM and CMOS RAM) FFT Controller board FFT controller board Close-up of the Raytheon TMC2310 FFT controller RAM memory on the FFT controller board
CPU card CPU card - bottom view CPU card - top view BIOS configuration backup battery (replaced) Peripheral connectors and the rear end of the CPU board I/O board I/O board - top view Siemens 80C537 microcontroller and optical interface (RCU)
Video card VIDEO card - top Video card detail Video card output section Optical interfaces mounted at the bottom Rear panel with recessed optical sockets Modified video card Optical sockets no longer recessed
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TTF Processor case with top lid removed
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Top view
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Various PSU modules
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DC/DC converters
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PSU
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Mains transformer
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12V DC input and output with filtering
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Bus bridge card
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IF interface and data acquisition card
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IF interface card - cover removed
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IF interface card
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Close-up of IF font-end
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Back-end with A/D converter
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Data acquisition card
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Data acquisition bus card
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Data acquisition interface
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op view
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Mixer
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Memory board
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Memory board (EPROM and CMOS RAM)
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FFT Controller board
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FFT controller board
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Close-up of the Raytheon TMC2310 FFT controller
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RAM memory on the FFT controller board
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CPU card
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CPU card - bottom view
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CPU card - top view
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BIOS configuration backup battery (replaced)
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Peripheral connectors and the rear end of the CPU board
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I/O board
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I/O board - top view
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Siemens 80C537 microcontroller and optical interface (RCU)
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Video card
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VIDEO card - top
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Video card detail
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Video card output section
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Optical interfaces mounted at the bottom
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Rear panel with recessed optical sockets
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Modified video card
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Optical sockets no longer recessed

Restoration
As the PAN-2000 was developed in the mid-1990s — now well over 20 years ago — some repair and restoration is inevitable. The device has seen a significant mobile service life, and has been stored under uncontrolled conditions for several years once it was decomissioned in 2005-2007.

The first thing to worry about is to make suitable cabling for the system, as the original cabling has been lost. Once the wiring is in place, the unit can be tested. Note that the PAN-2000 FFT Processor has to be connected to a modified ICOM IC-R9000 receiver. A standard IC-R9000 will also work, albeit with reduced performance.

A serious problem is that of the backup battery on the processor card, which retains the CMOS memory that holds the BIOS of the system. It is very likely that after so many years this battery is flat and that the BIOS settings have been lost.
  
BIOS configuration backup battery (replaced)

This problem can be solved by replacing the rechargeable backup battery as shown in the image above. Once the battery has been replaced the BIOS settings must be restored manually, but this introduces a new problem: it needs a PC keyboard and an ISA96-compatible VGA graphics card.

The first problem can be solved by making a suitable adapter cable and connecting a standard PC/XT or PS2 keyboard to the CPU card. The second problem is more difficult, as compatible cards are no longer available and the previous owner (RCD/AT) had only one such VGA card.

Luckily, with help from Nico van Dongen [1] and Marcel Rohrs [2], we were able to borrow the only remaining VGA card and configure BIOS of the system. Another possible solution would be to convert an existing ISA VGA card or a PC/104 VGA card for connection to our ISA96/AT96 bus.
  

With the previous problems solved, we were able to switch the PAN-2000 on for the first time in years. It worked straight away, but various types of glitches were observed on the FFT spectrum display. Sometimes the image showed excessive noise — originating from inside the device — sometimes a saw-tooth signal appeared and sometimes the spectrum was gone completely.

Tapping the enclosure had some effect on the glitches, and it was concluded that the IF Interface was responsible for the problems.

The IF Interface is a beautifully built but very complex device, that can be the root cause of several problems. First off all we replaced the square red 100µF electrolytic capacitor in the negative power circuit. Next we resoldered all three power stabilizers that are located in the same area. And finally, to reduce any spurious signals (birdies), we cleaned the outer edges of the shielding on both sides with an ereaser.
  
Replaced capacitor and the three voltage regulators

As an extra safety measure, we added a heatsink to the AD872 A/D converter, which appeared to produce substantional heat. Adding a heatsink will increase its lifespan. Once this was done, the IF Interface was closed again. When doing this, ensure that all hex mounting stubs are properly fitted on both sides of the PCB, that all screws are present, and that they are properly tightened.

The image on the right shows the extra heatsink that was glued onto the A/D converter. Note that in the original design — the same IF interface was used as part of the Telefunken PSG-1800 panorama display — a heatsink was also present in this place. The image also shows the cleaned upper edges of the shielding that ensures a proper contact with the aluminium-padded lid.

Once the repaired IF interface was re-installed, the PAN-2000 was switched ON again, this time without any noticable glitches in the spectrum and without any spurious signals, or birdies.
  
Heatsink added to the A/D converter

The only thing left now, was the ICOM IC-R9000 receiver. As the original – modified – receiver had been lost, we had to settle for a standard one. Although the PAN-2000 can be operated with an unmodified R9000, the performance will be sub-standard due to several quirks in its design.

Modifying an IC-R9000 for use with the PAN-2000 is not for the faint of heart. It involves not only replacing a couple of connectors and part of the wiring, it also requires serious modification of a number of densely populated boards and a complete re-alignment of the entire receiver.

If you happen to have a PAN-2000 with an un­modified R9000 receiver, think twice before you start modifying it. If you are uncertain, you may want to carry out the simple modifications first, so that the receiver can at least be used with the PAN-2000 for initial demonstration purposes.
  
Modified connection board and new BNC sockets, seen from inside the receiver

All modifications of the ICOM IC-R9000 are described on this page.

 IC-R9000 modifications

BIOS configuration backup battery (replaced) Back-end with A/D converter 100uF capacitor in -ve power supply replaced Replaced capacitor and the three voltage regulators Heatsink added to the A/D converter Close-up of IF font-end
F
×
F
1 / 6
BIOS configuration backup battery (replaced)
F
2 / 6
Back-end with A/D converter
F
3 / 6
100uF capacitor in -ve power supply replaced
F
4 / 6
Replaced capacitor and the three voltage regulators
F
5 / 6
Heatsink added to the A/D converter
F
6 / 6
Close-up of IF font-end

History
During the 1970s and 80s, the Netherlands was flooded with clandestine radio stations (pirates) operating in the MW/AM and VHF/FM broadcast bands. In an attempt to counter the illegal use of the (limited) frequency space and to reduce interference caused by such transmitters, the Dutch Radio Monitoring Service – at the time known as the Radio Controle Dienst (RCD) – had its own purpose-built intercept receiver, which became known as the PAN-1000 (panoramic 1000 MHz).

PAN-1000 was developed by the Dutch Radar Laboratory (NRP) and was introduced in the early 1980s, at the height of the clandestine activity. In total, approx. 30 systems were built at a unit cost of NLG 160,000 (EUR 73,000). They were delivered to the RCD over the next few years in several batches. Most systems were built inside the trunk of a regular car, with the controls and display within reach of the driver/investigator.

By the early 1990s, the PAN-1000 had to be replaced and the need had arisen for a wider frequency range, preferably up to 2000 MHz.
  
PAN-1000, the predecessor of the PAN-2000

Due to the high price of the PAN-1000 and the meanwhile significantly reduced budget of the RCD – meanwhile renamed HDTP-RDR – the order was not given to the NRP, but to ELCOM in München (Germany). The new receiver would become known as the PAN-2000. Approximately 20 units were ordered, at a unit price which was reportedly a fraction of the old PAN-1000 price.

Over the years, ELCOM GmbH had built a very good reputation for developing, building and integrating system components for Telefunken 1 – also based in München – such as a number of key components for the E-1800/E-1900 series HF/VHF/UHF receivers and their accessories.

In fact, the IF interface, the IF controller, the FFT controller and the Video Graphics Card, were taken straight from the Telefunken PSG-1800 Panoramic Display – an accessory of the highly acclaimed Telefunken E-1800 Receiver – with only small alterations to the individual units.
  
Similar interface cards in the AEG/Telefunken PSG-1800 panarama viewer

The IF interface was adapted for the 10.7 MHz IF signal from the ICM IC-R9000 receiver and the internal 10 MHz reference oscillator was used, rather than an external one. Furthermore, the IF controller and the firmware were adapted in such a way that a maximum span of 10 MHz could be shown on the panarama display, processed as 5 individual segments of 2 MHz each.

  1. Over the years, Telefunken products were also sold under the AEG, DASA, EADS, TST and Racoms brands.

Predecessor   PAN-1000
The PAN-2000 was developed as the successor to the PAN-1000, which had been developed in the early 1980s by the Dutch Radar Laboratory (NRP), especially for the Dutch Radio Monitoring Service (RCD). As the name suggests, it is suitable for frequencies up to 1000 MHz (1 GHz).

It offered a superior performance over the entire 100 kHz - 1 GHz frequency range, with virtually no spurious signals, but had a price tag of no less than NLG 160,000 in 1983 (~ EUR 75,000).

 More information

  
Complete PAN-1000 set

Connections
Below is the pinout of the various sockets and connectors of the PAN-2000 core components. The pinout of the sockets of the ICOM IC-R9000 receiver and the TAIYO TD-L1706 direction finder can be found on their respective pages. The layout of the rear panel of the ELCOM FFT Processor is shown above. The following sockets are available on the FFT processor:

FFT Processor
  • PSU-ST1
    Mains input (220V AC)
  • PSU-ST2
    12V DC input (and switch signal)
  • PSU-BU1
    12V DC output for DF unit and 15V output for receiver)
  • VIDEO-BU1
    Analogue video (not present)
  • VIDEO-VS
    Display vertical sync (optical link)
  • VIDEO-HS
    Display horizontal sync (optical link)
  • VIDEO-CLK
    Display pixel clock (optical link)
  • VIDEO-VID
    Display video (optical link)
  • I/O-ANT IN
    Antenna input (usually from manual antenna selector)
  • I/O-ANT 1
    Antenna 1 input of ICOM IC-R9000 (50 ohm coax)
  • I/O-ANT 2
    Antenna 2 input of ICOM IC-R9000 (50 ohm coax)
  • I/O-ANT 3
    Antenna 3 input of ICOM IC-R9000 (50 ohm coax)
  • I/O-CONSOLE
    RCU TxD (optical link)
  • I/O-TUNING
    ICOM IC-R9000 CM-OUT (coax)
  • RM-ICOM REMOTE
    ICOM IC-R9000 REMOTE (coax)
  • CPU-ST1
    RS232 serial port (for connection of PC)
  • IF-BU1
    IF input (from ICOM IC-R9000) (coax)
  • IF-BU2
    IF output (to TAIYGO TD-L1706) (coax)
Console
PSU - Battery input   ST2
  1. Battery +
  2. Battery -
  3. Switch input (+12V from console)
    3-pin male XLR socket
PSU - Battery output   BU1
  1. (+) 15V DC (for receiver)
  2. GND
  3. (+) 12V DC (for direction finder)
    3-pin female XLR socket
CPU - RS232   ST1
This is a full serial RS-232 port for connection of a personal computer (PC). It is the first serial port (COM-1) of the CPU card, and is configured as 9600 baud, 8-bits, no parity, 1 stopbit (8N1). Full hardware handshaking is supported. This port basically duplicates the functionality of the console. The accepted command protocol is specified in the technical manual [A p.28].

  1. GND
  2. TXD
  3. RXD
  4. RTS
  5. CTS
  6. DSR
  7. GND
  8. DTR
    DB25 male socket (looking into the socket)
Console - DB9
The remote control unit (RCU) has several connections for power and other peripherals. Below are the pinouts of all sockets that are located at the rear side of the RCU, starting with the DB-9 socket that carries the 12V DC power lines (looking into the socket):

  1. Audio line in (from IC-R9000 LINE OUT)
  2. (-) 12V DC (GND)
  3. Relay out for Taiyo DF unit (via DIR FINDER switch)
  4. (-) 12V DC (GND)
  5. (+) 12V DC input
  6. (+) 12V DC output (switched via POWER ON switch)
  7. n.c.
  8. n.c.
  9. n.c.
    DB9 female socket (looking into the socket)
Console - LINE out
At the rear of the remote control unit is a 5-pin 180° DIN socket for connection of a (tape) recorder. It follows the regular pinout of mono audio equipment, when looking into the socket:

  1. LINE OUT
  2. GND
  3. n.c.
  4. n.c.
  5. n.c.
    5-pin DIN 180° (looking into the socket)
Console - Speaker
The RCU also has a socket for connection of a loudspeaker, of which the volume can be adjusted with the volume control on the RCU. The pinout is identical to the speaker socket of the earlier PAN-1000, so that its speaker can be used straight away:

  1. Speaker 4Ω
  2. n.c.
  3. Speaker GND
  4. Direction finder on/off
  5. Direction finder on/off
    5-pin DIN 240° (looking into the socket)
Also on the RCU is an SMA/F socket marked RATELAAR (English: Rattle). This socket should be connected to the 1/100 output of the DARE CR-300/C frequency counter and allows the frequency in the counter's display to be copied to the PAN-2000, when pressing the COUNT-button on the RCU.

CPU - Keyboard
Under normal circumstances it should not be necessary to connect a keyboard to the PAN-2000, but in case the BIOS settings are lost, this might be required. In that case, install an AT96/ISA96 graphics card in the slot (X) to the left of the CPU and connect an IBM keyboard to the CPU board.

  1. Vcc +5V
  2. KDAT
  3. KCLK
  4. do not use (turbo L)
  5. MCLK
  6. MDATA
  7. do not use (turbo M)
  8. n.c.
  9. n.c.
  10. GND
    10-pin header on the CPU board
Standard IBM-compatible PC (XT) keyboard:

  1. KCLK
  2. KDAT
  3. not connected
  4. GND
  5. Vcc (+5V)
    5-pin DIN 180° of an old-style IBM PC keyboard (looking into the socket)
Standard PS-2 keyboard:

  1. KDAT
  2. MDAT
  3. GND
  4. Vcc (+5V)
  5. KCLK
  6. MCLK
    6-pin mini-DIN of PS-2 keyboard (looking into the socket)
Specifications
FFT Processor
  • Input frequency
    10.7 MHz (IF from receiver)
  • Input impedance
    50Ω
  • Input level
    -40 dBm (for maximum display)
  • Frequency span
    100 kHz, 250 kHz, 500 kHz, 1 MHz, 2.5 MHz, 5 MHz or 10 MHz
  • Non-linearity
    ± 0.2%
  • Windowing
    Hanning
  • Resolution
    256 bit
  • Display rate
    10/2 — 30/s (depending on span)
  • Input range
    -110dBm — +10dBm
  • Attenuator
    IF: 50dB (in 10dB steps), RF: 60dB (in 10dB steps)
  • Amplitude acuracy
    ±3dB
  • Image rejection
    > 70dB
  • Intermodulation
    < 70dBm
  • Dynamic range
    70dB
  • Display range
    80dB
  • Display MODE
    Normal, Average, Maximum, Freeze
  • Memories
    100 1
  • AC input
    120/240V AC (selector), 48 — 66 Hz, 200mA @ 220V AC
  • DC input
    9.5V — 18V DC, ~ 4.4A @ 12V DC
  • DC output
    15V DC ±5%, 7A
  • Temperature
    0°C/+50°C, operational: -20°C/+55°C, storage: -40°C/+70°C
  • Dimensions
    464 x 443 x 132.5 mm
FFT Display
  • Display type
    Electroluminescent (EL), raster scanning display
  • Resolution
    512 x 256 (2:1)
  • Active area
    233 x 136 mm
  • Refresh rate
    50 Hz
  • Intensity
    Adjustable with knob
  • DC input
    11 — 30V DC, ~ 500mA @ 12V DC
  • Data input
    4 x optical fibre (plastic)
  • Dimensions
    268 x 146 x 40 mm
Console
  • Counter input 2
    0dBm, 50Ω
  • Counter resolution
    10 Hz (10kHz—300kHz), 100 Hz (300MHz–20MHz)
  • Speaker output
  • Recording outout
    600Ω
  • DC input
    9 — 14V DC
  • DC current
    ~ 200mA @ 12V DC
  • Data output
    1 x optical fibre (plastic)
  • Dimensions
    222 x 115 x 92 mm
  1. The following parameters are stored with each memory position: frequency, span, IF mode, IF bandwidth, attenuation, display mode and scan mode.
  2. This refers to the input marked RATELAAR at the rear of the Console. This input should be connected to the 1/100 output of the CR-3000/C frequency counter.

Checklist
Glossary
AMS   Advanced Microcomputer Systems
16-bit computer bus-architecture with real-time facilities and multi-processor capability, initially developed in 1974 by Intel as Multibus [8]. Later adopted as the IEEE 796 bus. In Europe also knows as the IEC 796 standard and as AMS-bus.  Wikipedia
BIOS   Basic Input/Output System
In an IBM-compatible PC platform, the BIOS is a piece of non-volatile firmware that is used to perform hardware initalisation during the start-up process of the platform (booting). In most cases, the configuration of the BIOS is held in a volatile battery-backed CMOS RAM.  Wikipedia
DF   Direction Finding RDF
FFT   Fast Fourier Transform
Mathematical algorithm that samples a signal over a period of time (or space) and divides it into a (finite) number of frequency components. In this context, the FFT converts the sampled IF signal from the ICOM receiver from the time domain to the frequency domain, so that it can be displayed as frequency spectrum activity.  Wikipedia
ISA   Industry Standard Architecture
 Wikipedia
RCU   Remote Control Unit
In this context, RCU refers to the central control unit of the PAN-2000. Also known as the CONSOLE.
RDF   Radio Direction Finding
Generic name for the processing of finding the direction of a (radio) transmitter. Also known as Direction Finding (DF).
Documentation
  1. PAN-2000 Technical Manual - Part 1 Description (German)
    ELCOM GmbH, mid-1994. 65 pages.

  2. PAN-2000 Technical Manual - Part 2 Circuit diagrams
    ELCOM GmbH, mid-1994.

  3. FFT Controller TMC2310, Datasheet
    Raytheon, TRW. Revision D, November 1990.

  4. A/D Converter AD872A, Datasheet
    Analog Devices, Revision A, November 1997.
     Obsolete — Replaced by AD871

  5. TS68483A Advanced Graphics Controller, datasheet
    SGS-Thomson Microelectronics, September 1993.
References
  1. Nico van Dongen (PA3ESA), PAN-2000 and system description
    Crypto Museum, July 2018.

  2. Marcel Rohrs, Previous owner of several PAN-2000 systems
    Crypto Museum, July 2018.

  3. AT/RCD technician, Personal correspondence
    April 2018 — August 2018.

  4. Wikipedia, Industry Standard Architecture
    Retrieved July 2018.

  5. Wikipedia, Fast Fourier transform
    Retrieved July 2018.

  6. Raytheon, TMC2310 FFT Controller, datasheet
    Revision D, November 1990. Retrieved July 2018.

  7. Wikipedia, TOSLINK
    Retrieved July 2018.

  8. Wikipedia, Multibus
    Retrieved July 2018.

  9. Wikipedia, Moiré pattern
    Retrieved July 2018.
Further information
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© Crypto Museum. Created: Wednesday 11 July 2018. Last changed: Monday, 03 September 2018 - 19:18 CET.
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