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PAN-1000
Panoramic Monitoring Receiver

PAN-1000 was a high-end intercept receiver in a 19" rackmount case, designed and built in the early 1980s by the Dutch Radar Laboratory (NRP), for use by the Dutch Radio Monitoring Service, at the time known as the Radio Controle Dienst (RCD) and part of the Dutch Post Office (PTT). It was used for finding clandestine radio stations (pirates) and is also known as the NRP receiver. The name PAN-1000 was derived from PANORAMIC and the maximum frequency (1000 MHz).

In the Netherlands the RCD was mandated by law for locating and taking down clandestine radio stations. As high-end monitoring and intercept receivers were not commonly available at the time, the RCD decided to commission the NRP with the development of a purpose-built one.

Development took several years and the ordered units were delivered over a period of five years. The image on the right shows a complete PAN-1000 system, consisting of a large 19" rack with the various HF, IF and AF modules, a small PSU, a display, an interface and a remote control unit.
  
Complete PAN-1000 set

The radio is extremely well built, has a very high sensitivity, is very accurate and has a constant behaviour over its entire frequency range to 1 GHz, despite the fact that it consists of 6 individual receivers. From 1983 to 1987, between 30 and 40 PAN-1000 units were delivered by the NRP [1], for a price of NLG 160,000 each (approx. EUR 73,000). The exact number of receivers is unknown at this time, as spare units and additional units were built for other Government agencies as well.

Some PAN-1000 systems were later extended with a TAIYO direction finding unit of which the flat antenna was concealed as the sunroof of the car. During the 1990s, when new intercept receivers were needed, the PAN-1000 was considered too expensive. As a replacement, a standard ICOM IC-R9000 receiver was expanded by the German company ELCOM with an external FFT processor, a panoramic display and a new remote control unit that was similar to the PAN-1000 one. The new receiver was designated PAN-2000 and was often combined with a TAIYO direction finder.

 History of the PAN-1000

Complete PAN-1000 set Display with cable Display interface unit (INT) Power Supply Unit (PSU) with connection panel PAN-1000 Remote Control Unit (RCU) Tuning with one finger Selecting a preset frequency Tuning the PAN-1000
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Complete PAN-1000 set
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Display with cable
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Display interface unit (INT)
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Power Supply Unit (PSU) with connection panel
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PAN-1000 Remote Control Unit (RCU)
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Tuning with one finger
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Selecting a preset frequency
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Tuning the PAN-1000

Setup
The Power Supply Unit (PSU) and the Main Unit (RX) were usually mounted in the trunk, with two cables – carrying power, data and audio – running to the front of the car. The graphical display (DSP) was connected to the main unit via a display interface unit (INT), and the custom-designed Remote Control Unit (RCU) was connected to both the display interface (INT) and the Main Unit.


The block diagram above shows how the various components are connected. All controls are located on the RCU, except for the preset buttons and the brightness control, which are part of the display. When in use, the complete PAN-1000 set consumes slightly less than 6A (at 12.6V).

The complete PAN-1000 system was designed in such a way that it could conveniently be built inside the Ford Grananda and Peugeot 204 cars that were used by the agency at the time. The drawings below show the position of the various components inside the Ford Granada in 1984.

Position of the various components inside a Ford Granada (1984)

The 19" racks (1) and (2) are mounted in the trunk, commonly in a heavy outer frame with shock mountings, as shown in the original brochure [D]. The interface between the receiver and the display would be fitted inside the glove compartment (3) of the car, whilst the display itself was mounted on the dasboard (4). Finally, the remote control unit was mounted between the seats, just aside the handbrake (5). The antenna was mounted somewhere on the body of the car (6).


In use
The PAN-1000 covers all frequencies between 100 kHz and 1 GHz and was suitable for virtually any intercept job at the time, although it did not have Direction Finding (DF) capabilities. Instead, the operator would measure field strength, in combination with a set of attenuators and a high-resolution field strength meter (with a linear or logarithmic scale) on the system's plasma display.

The attenuator could be operated directly from the RCU. Additionally, the field strength meter could be switch from a logarithmic scale to a linear one, giving a much better dynamic range in close proximity of the clandestine transmitter.

The entire system was designed in such a way that it could be controlled by a single person who was driving the car at the same time. For this reason, cars with an automatic transmission were generally used. The frontmost dial is used for tuning to the desired frequency in small steps. Push-buttons are used for larger steps.
  
Tuning the PAN-1000

Once the receiver was tuned to the desired radio station, the investigator started driving around in order to find a direction in which the signal strength would increase. If the signal became too strong, he would use the second dial to select an appropriate attenuator (between 0 and 120 dB).

Finally, when the receiver was in close proximity of the transmitter, the attenuator would be set to its maximum (120 dB) and the S-meter would be switched to linear scale. Whilst driving past the location of the transmitter, the meter would clearly indicate a peak value. The investigator would usually repeat the last step several times, to be sure that the right house was entered.


The entry frequency span from 100 kHz to 1 GHz is divided over six main bands that are handled by six individual converters, each with their own sub-bands. There is a small overlap between the bands, that can be useful when investigating signals right at the border between two bands. The receiver has a built-in frequency hysteresis, that avoids switching to the other converter at that point, depending on whether you are tuning up or down, as illustrated in the diagram above.

The internal IF converters and synthesizer frequencies are choosen in such a way that spurious signals (birdies) are avoided as much as possible. In this respect, the PAN-1000 still outperforms many modern receivers today. Another unique feature of the PAN-1000 is the large 100 MHz frequency span of the display in the 500 - 1000 MHz band that greatly helped the discovery of clandestine TV stations in this part of the spectrum; a typical problem of the 1980s.




Block diagram
The simplified block diagram below shows how the various modules are connected together. The frequency range from 100 kHz to 1 GHz is divided over six main bands. The input selector feeds the antenna signal, via an adjustable attenuator, to the selected converter. Inside each of the six converters, the band is further divided into sub-bands that are each processed independently.

PAN-1000 main block diagram - Click to download as PDF Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4 Module 5 Module 6 Module 7 Module 8 Module 9 Module 10 Module 11 Module 12 Module 13 Module 14 Module 15 Module 16 Module 17 Module 18 Module 19 Module 20 Module 21 Module 22 Module 23 Speaker

 Download block diagram as PDF

At the bottom right is a complex set of digital frequency synthesizers that together determine the frequency of the bands and sub-bands of each band module, in such a way that hardly any internal spurious signal (burdies) are generated. The receiver produces two independent outputs, one of which is used to give a panoramic view of the selected frequency, whilst the other one is further processed and demodulated into an audible signal. Frequency setting is under control of three microprocessors (µP), one of which is located in the receiver cabinet (RX) as module #14.

TIP — Click any of the modules in the above block diagram for a detailed description and hi-res images.
Converters
The PAN-1000 consists of 6 converters that each cover a part of the supported frequency range. These converters can be seen as six individual receivers. With exception of the lowest frequency range (0.1 - 31.25 MHz), each converter has two internal frequency mixers. It delivers an output signal of 50 MHz which is mixed in a 3rd IF stage down to 10.7 MHz before it is fed to the FM, AM and SSB demodulators. This concept can best be described as a tripple-super-heterodyne.


The only exception to this rule is the converter for the lowest frequency band (module 7, 100 kHz - 31.25 MHz), which has only one IF stage and is therefore a double-super-heterodyne receiver.


The signals for the 1st and 2nd mixers are generated by a complex set of digital frequency synthesizers (modules 15 - 19), all of which are under control of the internal microprocessor (module 14, µPS). The first signal – here denoted as Synthesizer 1 – is a variable frequency that is responsible for tuning. The second synthesizer produces a fixed frequency of 240 or 360 MHz.

Microprocessors
The block diagram below shows how the three microprocessors are working together. At the left is µPS (system), which is part of the receiver (RX). The other two processors – µPC (control) and µPD (display) are housed inside the display interface unit (INT). The system processor (µPS) communicates with the control processor (µPC) via a full-duplex serial link at 76800 baud.

PAN-1000 microprocessors

The control processor (µPC) continuously informs the system processor (µPS) about the settings of the controls of RCU and the state of the 7 push-buttons that are located below the display panel. The display is controlled by a separate processor (µPD), which receives its commands from the control processor (µPC) via a parallel peripheral interface adapter (PIA). The display processor (µPD) sends its commands and data to the display control board (DSP-A) which is housed in the same enclosure as µPC and µPD (INT). The display control board – which is supplied by Sharp – is connected to the display driver board (DSP-B) which is mounted to the back of the display panel.

Module 14 - µPS system processor Close-up of the system processor (µPS) Module 14 - µPS system processor Sharp display controller board Display driver µPC processor board (control) µPD processor board (display)
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Module 14 - µPS system processor
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Close-up of the system processor (µPS)
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Module 14 - µPS system processor
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Sharp display controller board
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Display driver
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µPC processor board (control)
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µPD processor board (display)




Complete PAN-1000 set

Parts
Receiver (main unit) Control unit (CU) Plasma (EL) panorama display Interface unit (INT)
INT
Power supplu unit (PSU)
PSU
Power and data cables Loudspeaker Operating and Service Manual
Receiver main unit   RX
The main unit of the PAN-1000 system is the actual receiver itself. It has a modular design and consists of a double Eurocard 19" rack that holds the various modules. Each half of the rack has its own backplane through which the power lines, data lines and clock signals are distributed.

The image on the right shows the receiver rack. At the top row are 10 modules (marked 1-10). The antenna is connected to the Type N socket of the first module (1) that contains a switchable attenuator followed by a band selector relay.

The output of the band selector is fed to any of the six RF converters (modules 2-7), each of which delivers its output to the 50 MHz 3rd IF stage (module 8). The output of the 50 MHz stage is passed to the 4th IF stage at 10.7 MHz (9) and finally to the demodulator (10), which converts it into an audible signal for the RCU.
  
PAN-1000 main unit

The bottom row holds 9 modules (marked 11-19), some of which are wider that the others. The first three modules are part of the panorama viewer, which consists of a sweep generator (13), a mixer (12) and a logarithmic amplifier (11). The mixer gets its input from each of the six band converters in the top row (2-7). The output of the logarithmic amplifier (11) is fed to the input of the µPS microprocessor unit (14), where it is sampled by an A/D converter. The microprocessor passes it on to the display interface unit (INT) that presents it on the panoramic display (DSP).

All connections between the various modules are made by means of high-quality teflon coax cables with SMA connectors at either end. The rack allows each module to be removed in order to be serviced individually. The receiver has no controls and was usually mounted in the trunk of the car. Two multi-wire cables are used to connect it to the RCU and the display interface (INT).

 Detailed description of each module

PAN-1000 main unit PAN-1000 main unit Antenna input and distributor A large number of coax cables... Main Unit rear view Connections at the rear of the Main Unit Power cable Display power cable
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PAN-1000 main unit
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PAN-1000 main unit
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Antenna input and distributor
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A large number of coax cables...
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Main Unit rear view
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Connections at the rear of the Main Unit
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Power cable
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Display power cable




Layout of the CU. Click to download a Quick Reference Card in PDF format.

Remote Control Unit   RCU
The custom-designed Remote Control Unit (RCU) measures approx. 26 x 7.5 x 11 cm and was layed out in such a way that all controls were conveniently located and could be identified by touch. It was mounted in between the two front seats of the car by means of velcro strips.

The image on the right shows the RCU a seen from the right. The driver could place his right hand on the knobs whilst driving the car, resting the palm of the hand on the rounded grey pad.

The two most important controls are located prominently at the top of the unit. The frontmost dial is the tuning knob and one behind it is the attenuator. The three knobs at the lower right are (front to rear) clarifier, volume and squelch. The MODE selector (AM, FM, SSB) is located at the back of the unit, as it is hardly used. Various toggle switches and push-buttons are located at all sides of the CU, within reach of the fingers.
  
PAN-1000 Remote Control Unit (RCU)

There is no text or index on it, as the driver has no time to look at the controls whilst driving. Furthermore, the device was often operated in the dark. In practice, an operator quickly got used to the controls as they are organized in an intuitive manner. All connections to the main unit (RX), the display interface (INT) and the speaker are at the rear, where also the MODE selector is found. An isolated recording output (0dB into 600Ω) is available on a 5-pin DIN socket at the right side.

PAN-1000 Remote Control Unit (RCU) RCU seen from the front left Operating the tuning dial RCU seen from the front right Close-up of the controls at the front MODE selector and connections at the rear RCU interior Wiring of the connectors
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PAN-1000 Remote Control Unit (RCU)
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RCU seen from the front left
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Operating the tuning dial
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RCU seen from the front right
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Close-up of the controls at the front
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MODE selector and connections at the rear
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RCU interior
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Wiring of the connectors

Display   DSP
The display unit is used for the interaction with the operator. It shows the current frequency, the current settings and the panorama display. At the heart of the display unit is a SHARP LJ-320U01 Electro-Luminescent (EL) Display, also known as PLASMA, with a resolution of 320 x 240 pixels.

The display measures approx. 19 x 15 cm and was mounted on the dashboard of the car, to the right of the steering wheel, in such a position that the driver had a clear view whilst driving.

The display holds the necessary electronics for driving and refreshing it. This driver board was supplied by SHARP. It was connected to a large external character and graphics generator – also supplied by SHARP – that was part of the display interface unit (INT). For that reason, the interface unit had to be placed as close to the display as possible, usually in the glove compartment.
  
Display and interface

Below the display are 7 push-buttons. The first six of these buttons are for recalling the presets. The rightmost button is green and is used for storing a new preset. After pressing the green button, the letter 'M' appears in the display (Memory). After subsequently pressing one of the preset buttons, the current frequency is stored in memory and the letter 'M' disappears again.

Display and interface Display with cable Preset buttons below the display Display interior Display driver Listening to a pirate station in the FM broadcast band Display and Remote Control Unit Selecting a preset frequency
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Display and interface
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Display with cable
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Preset buttons below the display
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Display interior
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Display driver
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Listening to a pirate station in the FM broadcast band
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Display and Remote Control Unit
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Selecting a preset frequency

Interface unit   INT
At the time the PAN-1000 was developed, microprocessors were not very powerful yet, and graphics controllers were hardly available. Furthermore it was difficult to find good displays, with sufficient resolution and refresh rate, that could display text and graphics simultaneously.

The SHARP EL display that was selected for the PAN-1000 was by far the best possible solution, but required a lot of extra electronics. Part of these electronics – the display driver – were placed behind the display, but the character and graphics generator was much larger and had to be placed elsewhere, but not too far away.

It was decided to place this board in a separate enclosure – shown in the image on the right – that was mounted inside the glove compartment of the dashboard. It has two compartments, one of which houses the display controller board.
  
Display interface unit (INT)

The display controller board (DSP-A) is connected to the display driver board (DSP-B, mounted behind the display) via a short cable in order to avoid interference. The display controller board is driven by one of the microprocessors (µP) that are placed at the reverse side of the enclosure.

The other compartment of the interface unit holds two microprocessors: µPC and µPD. The first one (µPC) is the control processor. It reads the state of the controls on the RCU and the push-buttons below the display, and sends it to the system microprocessor at the main unit (µPS) via a full-duplex asynchronous serial interface.

In return, the system processor (µPS) keeps the control processor (µPC) constantly updated with panoramic data, which is passed via a parallel interface (PIA) on to the display processor (µPD) which converts it into graphical display data.
  
Redesigned display interface unit (INT) - bottom side showing µPC and µPD processors

With the first generation PAN-1000 receivers (1984), the two microprocessors were each placed on a separate board, marked µPC and µPD respectively. With the second generation (1987), the two processors were placed on a single board, along with some additional circuitry. At the same time, the SHARP display control board was placed upside down, so that it could be interfaced more easily to the µPD board at the other side by means of a 50-way ribbon cable (flatcable).

Display interface unit (INT) Sharp display controller board Display interface unit (INT) - initial version µPC processor board (control) µPD processor board (display) Redesigned display interface unit (INT) - bottom side showing µPC and µPD processors Sharp display controller board Wiring to the PCB
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Display interface unit (INT)
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Sharp display controller board
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Display interface unit (INT) - initial version
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µPC processor board (control)
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µPD processor board (display)
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Redesigned display interface unit (INT) - bottom side showing µPC and µPD processors
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Sharp display controller board
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Wiring to the PCB

Power Supply Unit   PSU
The Power Supply Unit (PSU) was placed externally. According to its front panel, it is designated MODULE 20. It contains a relay – controlled by a switch on the RCU – that supplies the raw 12V to the receiver. It also delivers +15V and -12V for the EL display and the A/D converter respectively.

Although it seems overkill, the PSU is mounted on its own in the full-width 19" Eurocard rack shown in the image on the right. It is connected to the car battery via a 2-pin socket at the rear and to the main unit (RX) via an 6-pin socket.

The rack offers space for two additional plug-in units (modules) that are omitted in the image. The additional space was for the anticipated (optional) doppler radio direction finder (RDF). Three extra sockets are available at the rear for the RDF unit that was placed externally. In practice, this option was never used however.
  
PSU in single 19 inch rack

The PSU is designed in such a way that the PAN-1000 consumes no power when it is switched OFF. This is done by deactivating the relay that is present inside the PSU. When toggling the power switch at the front of the Remote Control Unit, the relay is activated and power is supplied to the receiver and the other parts. Within a few seconds, the PAN-1000 is ready for use.

As the RDF option was never used, the extra slots and connectors were omitted from the PSU that was supplied with the second generation PAN-1000 receivers that was supplied in 1987.

As a result, the new PSU requires far less space in the trunk of the car. The image on the right shows the redesigned PSU, which is housed in a simple aluminium enclosure that was mounted behind the main unit. A small aluminium panel holds the sockets for connection to the vehicle battery (2-pin) and the main unit (8-pin Jones). The PSU was wired directly to the car battery.
  
Power Supply Unit (PSU) with connection panel

Inside the PSU is a simple DC-DC voltage converter, built from discrete components. It contains a 55 kHz square-wave generator that is built around a CA3140 OpAmp, and provides stable +15V and -12V voltages for display and A/D converter. A relay switches the raw +12V to the main unit.

PSU in single 19 inch rack PSU in 19 inch rack seen from the rear Power Supply Unit (PSU) with connection panel Power Supply Unit (PSU) with connection panel PSU connection panel PSU interior Close-up of the controls at the front
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PSU in single 19 inch rack
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PSU in 19 inch rack seen from the rear
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Power Supply Unit (PSU) with connection panel
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Power Supply Unit (PSU) with connection panel
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PSU connection panel
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PSU interior
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Close-up of the controls at the front

Cables
The PAN-1000 came with a full set of cables for installation in a regular car. A multi-wire cable with a 7-pin DIN plug at either end connects the main unit (RX) to the display interface (INT). This cable carries power (15V and -12V) and full-duplex serial data at a speed of 76800 baud.

The cable is long enough to run from the trunk to the glove compartment at the dashboard, in which the display interface (INT) is installed.

Another long 14-wire multi-cable connects the main unit (RX) to the remote control unit (RCU) between the front seats. This cable carries the audio signal and the ON/OFF line, allowing the receiver to be turned on remotely from the RCU.

A shorter 24-wire multi-cable connects the RCU to the display interface, allowing it to keep the main unit updated with the state of the controls.
  
Cable between display interface (INT) and remote control unit (RCU)

The image above shows the 24-wire RCU/INT cable. A thick multi-coloured 6-wire cable is used to connect the main unit (RX) to the external power supply unit (PSU). Depending on the type of PSU and the type of socket on the main unit, one of three different power cables was supplied.

The first generation of PAN-1000 receivers had 6-pin AMP plugs at either side of the power cable. Later – when smaller PSUs were supplied – this was changed to a cable with an 6-pin AMP plug at one side and a 8-pin Jones connector at the other end. With the last generation of PAN-1000 receivers - delivered in 1987 – the power cable had 8-pin Jones connectors at either end. This variant is shown in the image on the right.

Separate cables were supplied for connecting the PSU to the 12V car battery and for connecting a small speaker to the remote control unit (RCU).
  
Power cable Jones-Jones

The first generation of PAN-1000 receiver had provisions for the connection of an (optional) doppler radio direction finder (RDF), which is why the power supply module (PSU) was housed in a full width 19" rack. Two additional cards could be installed in the rack, and two additional multi-wire cables were supplied for connection to the main unit and to the external installation. Although all cables and interfaces were present, it is unlikely that this option was ever used.

Power cable AMP-AMP Power cable AMP-Jones Power cable Jones-Jones Cable between receiver (RX) and Remote Control Unit (RCU) Cable between display interface (INT) and remote control unit (RCU) Cable between receiver (RX) and display interface unit (INT) Battery cable (for connection to the car battery) Speaker cable
Expansion cable (for doppler unit) Expansion cable (for doppler unit)
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Power cable AMP-AMP
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Power cable AMP-Jones
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Power cable Jones-Jones
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Cable between receiver (RX) and Remote Control Unit (RCU)
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Cable between display interface (INT) and remote control unit (RCU)
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Cable between receiver (RX) and display interface unit (INT)
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Battery cable (for connection to the car battery)
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Speaker cable
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Expansion cable (for doppler unit)
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Expansion cable (for doppler unit)

Loudspeaker   SPK
The PAN-1000 does not have an internal speaker. Instead, an external speaker must be connected to the 5-pin 270° DIN socket at the rear of the remote control unit (RCU).

In most cases a simple small speaker was used, such as the one shown in the image on the right. It is manufactured by the German manufacturer Peiker and was commonly supplied with two-way radios and early car phones. The one shown here was branded 'PTT' as it was also used by the Dutch (state-owned) telecom provider with the first generation of car phones.
  
Peiker speaker

Manuals
Each PAN-1000 system came with a full set of operational and technical documentation, divided over two blue plastic binders. The manual contains operating instructions as well as full circuit descriptions and circuit diagrams.

As there are some differences between the first and second generation PAN-1000 units, the manual for the first 10 units is different from the one supplied with the later ones.

 Download the newer manual
  
PAN-1000 Manuals

History
The history of the PAN-1000 receiver starts in the early 1980s, at a time when The Netherlands was undergoing a recession and was plagued by an increasing number of clandestine radio and TV stations, often indicated as 'pirates'. At the time, the Radio Controle Dienst (RCD), responsible for confiscating such illegal transmitters, was heavily understaffed and had virtually no budget.

When the current State Secretary of Transport – Mrs. Smit-Kroes [4] – visited the headquarters of the RCD in Nederhorst Den Berg (Netherlands) at the end of 1980 or the beginning of 1981, the managing director, Daan Neuteboom, expressed his concern about the lack of staff and budget.

When Mrs. Kroes unexpectedly asked him how many extra employees he wanted, he stared at the ceeling for a moment and answered: "Fourty, Madam State Secretary". Although he probably wasn't expecting to get them, she replied: "You will get your fourty men, Mr. Neuteboom!" [2].
  
Old equipment used in the existing intercept vehicles

From then on, a seemingly endless line of new employees entered service. At the same time, it was decided to professionalize the department and develop a state-of-the-art receiver. A small committee was assembled to define the initial functional specification, using an existing Hans Plisch receiver as a starting point. It would have to be a panoramic receiver with an operational frequency range from 100 kHz to 1GHz, and it had to fit inside a standard car. The new receiver – that would later become known as PAN-1000 – would be developed and built in small quantity by the Dutch Radar Laboratory – Nederlands Radar Proefstation (NRP) – in Noordwijk (Netherlands).

Development of the receiver at the NRP started around 1983. Apart from the extreme technical specifications, several other problems has te be solved, before it could be taken into production.

The first problem was the panorama display. It had to be fitted on the dashboard of a card, so it could not be too deep. LCD screen were small enough, but were way too slow at the time to give a real-time representation of the frequency spectrum. This problem was solved by using an early type of Electroluminescent display (ELD) produced by the Japanese company Sharp [7].
  
Sharp EL display S-1021A

Electroluminescent displays (ELDs) are known today as Plasma Displays. At the time they were only available as monochrome displays. On the selected display the image was show in a yellow colour known as amber. Integrating it in the design wasn't for the faint of heart. Two additional large PCBs – both supplied by Sharp – had to be added in order to display text and graphics.

Another problem was that the receiver had to be controlled by the operator whilst driving the car. This means that a special remote control unit had to be developed. For safety reasons, it had to be fully intuitive and the operator had to be able to identify easy control only by touching it.

Cor Moerman [3][5], one of the law enforcement officers of the RCD, came up with a mockup of a possible design – made from junkbox parts – to explain the idea. This led to a series of designs and improvements, and finally evolved into the elegant remote control unit that we know now.
  
Remote Control Unit (RCU) first mockup, prototype and final version

The image above shows the mockup and the final design side-by-side. The final one is designed in such a way, that it can be mounted between the front seats, aside the handbrake. The operator could rest the palm of his hand on the rounded pad, and operate the controls with his fingers.

It was decided to create a modular design and implement the receiver as a set of plug-in units at extended Eurocard size (160 x 100 mm, plus the connector), so that it could be housed inside readily available 19" racks. It turned out that two full-width eurocard racks would be necessary. The power supply unit (PSU) would be placed externally, in order to avoid radio interference.

The image on the right shows the prototype of the PAN-1000 that was used at the NRP for hard and software development. It was later also used for incidental repairs and for firmware upgrades.
  
PAN-1000 prototype in two portable blue 19 inch cases

Finially, in May 1984 the PAN-1000 was ready for release and the first units were delivered to the RCD. They were built into the existing intercept vehicles of the time: a series of Ford Granada and several Peugeot 204 cars. Production of the PAN-1000 receivers was rather slow, and the first 10 units were delivered over a period of several years. In 1987, another 21 units were manufactured.

Direction finder
Initially, a Radio Direction Finder (RDF) was planned as an optional expansion for the PAN-1000. For this reason, the PSU was placed in a separate 19" rack, which had two additional slots for the interface. Although the NRP developed a prototype of an RDF unit that worked well with narrow­band signals (NBFM), they were unable to make it work reliably with wideband signals (WBFM).

By that time, The Japanese company TAIYO came up with the TD-L1706 radio direction finder with EF-353 antenna that worked well with both narrowband and wideband signals. As the TAIYO unit could simply be connected to the 10.7 MHz IF output of the PAN-1000, it was decided to cancel the development of the NRP direction finder, and order TAIYO units instead. The TAIYO direction finding units were later used again on the successor of the PAN-1000: the PAN-2000.

Maintenance
Each PCB inside the PAN-1000 is treated with a conformal coating that protects it from dust and moist. In the late 1980s one of the RCDs vehicles accidentally ended up in a canal. When it was recovered, the PAN-1000 was still fully functional, while all other equipment in the car was lost.

Testing and aligning the individual modules of the PAN-1000 was extremely complex and not for the faint of heart. Especially the alignment of the two free-running oscillators in synthesizer modules 17 and 18 was tough, as its inductors had to be adjusted within very narrow limits [8].

Several tools, or jigs, were developed at the NRP for the alignment of the various modules of the PAN-1000, such as the one shown in the image on the right, which was probably used for testing a synthesizer outside of the receiver's enclosure, connecting directly to the PCB's wide DIN socket.
  
Test-unit - probably for testing synthesizers

At the control panel, selectors, push-buttons and thumbwheel selectors are available to set up the required signals and stimulations. In the images below, several other test-jigs and test-cables are shown, such as one for the aligment and repair of the synthesizer VCO's and one for checking and repairing the audio circuits. The function of the remaining jigs/cables is currently unknown.

Sharp EL display S-1021A Prototype of the remote control unit (RCU) Remote Control Unit (RCU) first mockup, prototype and final version PAN-1000 prototype in two portable blue 19 inch cases Test-unit - probably for testing synthesizers Test-Jig for aligning synthesizer local oscillators (LO) Audio test-jig Unknown test-jig
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Sharp EL display S-1021A
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Prototype of the remote control unit (RCU)
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Remote Control Unit (RCU) first mockup, prototype and final version
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PAN-1000 prototype in two portable blue 19 inch cases
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Test-unit - probably for testing synthesizers
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Test-Jig for aligning synthesizer local oscillators (LO)
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Audio test-jig
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Unknown test-jig

About the RCD
The RCD was the Dutch Radio Monitoring Service (Radio Controle Dienst), responsible for tracing radio and TV interference, and for enforcing the Telecom Law. The PAN-1000 was developed in the early 1980s, when the Netherlands was flooded with radio and TV pirates.

Although the name of the organization has been changed several times over the years, it is often still called RCD by the public. The agency is currently known as Agentschap Telecom (AT).

 More about the RCD

  
The former RCD headquarters in Nederhorst den Berg (Netherlands)

About the NRP
The NRP was the Dutch Radar Test Station (Nederlands Radar Proefstation) in Noordwijk. It was established by Mr. J.M.F.A. (Joop) van Dijk shortly after WWII, on 7 July 1947, in an attempt to bring The Netherlands up to speed with the wartime developments in the field of RADAR.

In the years that followed, the NRP was involved in development and consultancy in the field of RADAR, navigation, sensors, communication equipment and communication systems in general. In the early 1980s the NRP was asked to develop a high-end intercept receiver for the Dutch Radio Monitoring Service (RCD).

 More about the NRP

  
NRP was housed for many years in villa WAVE GUIDE in Noordwijk. Copyright unknown.
NRP-FS
Alongside the PAN-1000 intercept receiver (see above), the NRP also released this small portable field-strength indicator that was used by the law enforcement officers to pinpoint the location of clandestine transmitter at very close range.

This unit has a built-in frequency counter that could be enabled temporarily by the user, to quickly determine the frequency of the signal.

 More information

  
NRP field strength meter with built-in frequency counter

Connections
Below is the wiring for the most important connectors on the device. It is assumed that the multi-wire cables (with Amphenol connectors) – that connect the various units together – are present and operational. If the pinout of sockets for these cables is needed, please refer to the service manuals [A][B]. Furthermore, there are several additional sockets on the original (rack-mounted) PSU of which the function is currently unknown. They were probably reserved for an RDF unit.

  1. Input (12V DC) — from car battery
  2. Power (12V, -12V and 15V) — to RX unit
  3. 12-pin multi-connector Unknown
  4. 14-pin multi-connector Unknown
  5. 10-pin multi-connector Unknown
    Connections at the rear panel of the (large) PSU
Battery
A 2-pin AMP connector is used for connection of the PAN-1000 to a 12V DC source, such as the battery of a car. The plugs has an index to prevent it from being inserted the wrong way around. If a suitable plug is missing, it is also possible to use common single AMP-plugs, but please check the polarity before applying power.

  1. Red
    10.6 — 15V
  2. Grey
    Ground (0V)
    2-pin AMP power socket
Power
An 6-pin AMP socket is present at the rear of the receiver rack (RX). The same socket is present on the power supply unit (PSU). The image below shows the pinout of this connector when looking into the socket. Note that later versions of the PSU and/or the receiver rack, have an 8-pin Jones connector in this place.

  1. Brown
    10.6 — 15V
  2. Yellow
    15V
  3. Grey
    GND
  4. Brown
    10.6 — 15V
  5. Blue
    -12V
  6. Black
    ON/OFF
    6-pin AMP power socket
Recording
The Control Unit (CU) has a 5-pin 180° DIN socket at the right side, just behind the SQUELCH control. This sockets is wired for MONO recording and is completely isolated from the receiver, by using a 1:1 transformer. It supplies AUDIO, independent from the VOLUME control, at a line level of 0dB into a 600 Ω load. Pinout is as follows (looking into the socket):

  1. Audio out (0dB into 600Ω)
  2. Ground
  3. not used
  4. not used
  5. not used
    Pinout of the 5-pin 180° DIN socket for recording (REC), looking into the socket.
Speaker
The connection for the speaker is at the rear of the CU, where also the connections to the display unit and the receiver are. The audio amplifier can deliver 2W into a 4 Ω speaker. The speaker connection is a 5-pin 207° socket with the following pinout:

  1. Audio out (speaker)
  2. not used
  3. Ground
  4. not used
  5. not used
    Pinout of the 5-pin 270° DIN socket for the speaker, looking into the socket.
Components
Modes
  • WBFM (100 kHz)
  • NBFM (12 kHz)
  • AM (5 kHz)
  • LSB (2.4 kHz)
  • USB (2.4 kHz)
  • CW (using USB or LSB)
Modules
Below is a complete list of the various modules of the PAN-1000. Modules 1 thru 19 are part of the Main Unit. Module 20 is the PSU, which is housed in a separate 19" rack. The other modules are available as separate units. Click here for a detailed description of each module.

  1. Input selector
  2. Converter 500-1000 MHz
  3. Converter 250-500 MHz
  4. Converter 125-250 MHz
  5. Converter 62.5-125 MHz
  6. Converter 31.25-62.5 MHz
  7. Converter 0.1-31.25 MHz
  8. 50 MHz Selector Unit
  9. IF Converter
  10. IF Amplifier and Demodulator
  11. Logarithmic Amplifier
  12. Mixer Panorama Display
  13. Sweep Synthesizer
  14. Microprocessor µPS
  15. 240/360 MHz Synthesizer
  16. 400-690 MHz Synthesizer
  17. 50-86.25 MHz Synthesizer
  18. 49-85.25 MHz Synthesizer
  19. 100-110 MHz Synthesizer
  20. DC-DC Converter (PSU)
  21. Remote Control Unit (RCU)
  22. Display Interface Unit (INT)
  23. Panorama Display (DSP)
 Detailed description of each module


Specifications
  • Frequency range
    100 KHz - 1 GHZ
  • Bands
    6  More
  • Tuning
    continuously with rotary dial (250/rev), coarse with push-buttons
  • Frequency step
    Depending on MODE and frequency band (see brochure)
  • Clarifier
    More than one frequency step (always available)
  • Resolution
    1 kHz (clarifier offset not shown in display)
  • Memory positions
    6 (not retained over a power cycle)
  • Noise figure
    < 9 dB
  • IP3
    > 5 dBm (f < 30 MHz), > 0 dBm (f > 30 MHz)
  • Mode
    USB, LSB, AM, NBFM, WBFM, CW (in position USB or LSB)
  • Stereo
    Indicator 'S' shown on display when detecting pilot tone
  • Bandwidth
     Crystal filters
  • Squelch
    With NBFM and WBFM only
  • AF output
    2 Watts into 4Ω speaker
  • Recording output
    1mW, 600Ω, fixed level
Freuency bands
  1. 0.1 - 31.25 MHz
  2. 31.25 - 62.50 MHz
  3. 62.50 - 125 MHz
  4. 125 - 250 MHz
  5. 250 - 500 MHz
  6. 500 - 1000 MHz
Bandwidth
  • USB
    2.4 kHz
  • LSB
    2.4 kHz
  • AM
    5 kHz
  • NBFM
    12 kHz
  • WBFM
    100 kHz
Display span
  • 0.1 - 31.25 MHz
    0.3, 1 or 3 MHz
  • 31.25 - 62.5 MHz
    1, 3 or 10 MHz
  • 62.5 - 500 MHz
    1, 3, 10 or 30 MHz
  • 500 - 1000 MHz
    1, 3, 10, 30 or 100 MHz
Glossary
AF   Audio Frequency
DSP   Display
In this context used for the display. Not to be confused with the current abbreviation DSP which means digital signal processor.
HF   High Frequency
IF   Intermediate Frequency
INT   Interface
In this context used for the display interface unit.
NRP   Nederlands Radar Proefstation
Dutch Radar Test Station in Noorwijk (Netherlands). Established in 1947 and renamed to CHL (Christiaan Huygens Laboratorium) in 1993. Now located in Katwijk (Netherlands).  More
RADAR   Radio Detection and Ranging
RCD   Radio Controle Dienst
Radio Monitoring Service of the Dutch Post Office (PTT) from 1975 to 1989. Later renamed to Agentschap Telecom (AT) and now part of the Ministry of Economics.  More
RCU   Remote Control Unit
In this context used for the black control device by which the PAN-1000 is operated.
uP   Microprocessor
Also written as µP. In this context used to identify any of the three microprocessors that control the operation of the PAN-1000 (µPS, µPC and µPD).  More
Documentation
  1. PAN-1000 Service Manual
    Serial numbers 1 t/m 10. February 1984. 394 pages (Dutch). 1

  2. PAN-1000 Service Manual
    Serial numbers 11 t/m 32. February 1987. 394 pages (Dutch). 1

  3. RCU Quick Reference Card
    Crypto Museum. January 2013.

  4. PAN-1000 Brochure
    February 1987.
References
  1. Nederlands Radar Proefstation BV, Panorama Ontvanger 0,1-1000 MHz
    Service Manual (Dutch) for serial numbers 11 to 32. February 1987. 1

  2. Anonymous former Investigator of the RCD
    Interview at Crypto Museum, May 2011.

  3. Cor Moerman, former Investigator of the RCD
    Interview at Crypto Museum, January 2013.

  4. Wikipedia, Neelie Kroes
    State Secretary for Transport from 28 December 1977 to 11 September 1981.
    Retrieved January 2013.

  5. Museum Jan Corver, Mockup of PAN-1000 Control Unit
    Object kindly given on loan by Cor Moerman for the purpose of this page. January 2013.

  6. CHL Netherlands BV, Successor of the Nederlands Radar Proefstation (NRP)
    PAN-1000 service manual reproduced here by permission from the copyright holder.
    29 January 2013.  About NRP/CHL

  7. Wikipedia, Electroluminescent display
    Retrieved April 2018.

  8. AT/RCD technician, Personal correspondence
    April 2018.
  1. Manual reproduced here by kind permission of CHL [6], the successor of the NRP.

Further information
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© Crypto Museum. Created: Tuesday 15 January 2013. Last changed: Thursday, 12 July 2018 - 06:15 CET.
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