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Hand Ciphers
Simple manual methods for encryption

One of the most basic methods for exchanging encrypted messages is a substitution cipher. In its simplest form it uses a shifted alphabet. This is often called a Caesar Cipher, as it was used by Julius Caesar for communication with his generals. It is also known as Strip Cipher, as some implementations use sliding alphabets printed on strips (made of paper, plastic or wood).

Subsitution tables, matrix ciphers and some versions of the One-Time Pad (OTP) can also be seen as manual cipher methods. Over the years hand methods have been used for a variety of uses, with varying degrees of success. Below are some examples.
 
Manual cipher systems on this website
The blank Aristo Slide Ruler The Confederate Cipher Disc, used during the American Civil War, based on the Vigenère Cipher. Close-up of the matrix on page 1 Jefferson disk (or: Jefferson Wheel Cipher) Giddings Field Message-Book with US Army Cipher Disk, used during the Spanish-American War in 1898. Code books Discret, an early typewriter with cipher capabilities
The unbreakable One-Time Pad (OTP)
OTP
The Confederate Cipher Disk (a variant of the Vigenèr Cipher) used during the American Civil War Caesar Wheel training disk Reverse Caesar Cipher Disc, made by Linge in Germany Georges Lugagne 'Le Sphinx' (1930)

 
Further information

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