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Enigma Wiring
This page gives a complete overview of all known Enigma wirings. The wiring of the early machines (Enigma A, Enigma B and Enigma H) is currently unknown. In the tables below, the wiring is given for each cipher wheel, the entry disc (ETW) and the reflector (UKW). In the column Notch the position of the turnover notch on the circumference of the wheel is given, whilst the column Turnover shows which letter (or number) is visible in the window at that time.


Inside each wheel are 26 wires that connect the wires from the contacts one side to the other side, in a scrambled order. The wiring for the wheels is defined as a translation of the input (right) to the output (left). In other words: all wiring is given as seen from the entry disc (ETW), as illustrated in the diagram above. The A corresponds to contact 1, etc. Note that the Ringstellung (ring setting) has to be set to the letter 'A' or the number '01' before tracing the wiring.

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
Please note that the wheels of the Service Enigma machines (Enigma I) have numbers (01-26) rather than letters (A-Z) around their circumference. As these are functionally identical (01=A, 02=B, etc.) we have only used letters in the tables below. Use the table above for conversion.


When measuring the reflector (UKW), please note that the first contact (A) is not at the top, but the one just before it. The contact at the top is 'B'. The diagram above shows the correct order of the pins on the UKW, when looking at the UKW from the right side of the machine (i.e. the side of the entry disc, or ETW). In other words: the UKW is rotated counter clockwise by one position.


Contents of this page

Enigma I
German Army and Air Force (Wehrmacht, Luftwaffe)

The Enigma I was the main Enigma machine used by the German Army. The Army and Navy machines were the only ones with a plug board. Below is the wiring for each wheel, the ETW and all three known UKWs. UKW-A was used before WWII [1]. UKW-B was the standard reflector during the war and UKW-C was only used in the later part of the war. The wiring of the five wheels is identical to the wiring of the first 5 wheels of the Enigma M3 (Navy) and the U-Boot Enigma M4.

Wheel ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ Notch Turnover #
ETW ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ      
I EKMFLGDQVZNTOWYHXUSPAIBRCJ Y Q 1
II AJDKSIRUXBLHWTMCQGZNPYFVOE M E 1
III BDFHJLCPRTXVZNYEIWGAKMUSQO D V 1
IV ESOVPZJAYQUIRHXLNFTGKDCMWB R J 1
V VZBRGITYUPSDNHLXAWMJQOFECK H Z 1
UKW-A EJMZALYXVBWFCRQUONTSPIKHGD      
UKW-B YRUHQSLDPXNGOKMIEBFZCWVJAT      
UKW-C FVPJIAOYEDRZXWGCTKUQSBNMHL      

Norway Enigma
Postwar usage

In 1945, immediately after WWII, some captured Enigma-I machines were used by the the former Norwegian Police Security Service: Overvaakingspolitiet. They modified the wheel wiring and the wiring of the Umkehrwalze (UKW, reflector). The wiring of the Eintrittzwalze (ETW, entry wheel) and the position of the turnover notches on the wheels were left unaltered. A machine that is modified in this way, is commonly known as a Norway Enigma or Norenigma as suggested by Frode Weierud in 2001 in order to discriminate between the standard and the modified wiring [2].

Wheel ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ Notch Turnover #
ETW ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ      
I WTOKASUYVRBXJHQCPZEFMDINLG Y Q 1
II GJLPUBSWEMCTQVHXAOFZDRKYNI M E 1
III JWFMHNBPUSDYTIXVZGRQLAOEKC D V 1
IV ESOVPZJAYQUIRHXLNFTGKDCMWB R J 1
V HEJXQOTZBVFDASCILWPGYNMURK H Z 1
UKW MOWJYPUXNDSRAIBFVLKZGQCHET      

Sonder Enigma
Sondermaschine (special machine)

In the late 1980s, a strange Enigma machine was dicovered in the house of a former intelligence officer, who used to work for a special unit. Basically, this machine was a standard Enigma-I, of which the wiring of the wheels and the UKW had been changed. For this reason, the machine and the wheels were were marked with the letter 'S', which probably means Sondermaschine (special machine). The wooden case is marked A1807S, whilst the machine is labelled 17401S/jla/43. The UKW is marked A19872S. The machine was re-discovered in 2017 by Gunter Hutter [9].

Wheel ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ Notch Turnover #
ETW ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ      
I VEOSIRZUJDQCKGWYPNXAFLTHMB Y Q 1
II UEMOATQLSHPKCYFWJZBGVXINDR M E 1
III TZHXMMBSIPNURJFDEQVCWGLAOY D V 1
UKW CIAGSNDRBYTPZFULVHEKOQXWJM      
At the end of WWII, the Enigma with serial number A17245 S was confiscated by a TICOM team and transferred to the NSA. It has the same wiring of the UKW as the A17401 S mentioned above. As the wheel wiring of the former is known, we were able to complete the table above [10][11].


Enigma M3
German Navy (Kriegsmarine)

The Enigma M1, M2 and M3 machines were used by the German Navy (Kriegsmarine). They are basically compatible with the Enigma I. The wiring of the Enigma M3 is given in the table below. Wheels I thru V are identical to those of the Enigma I. The same is true for UKW B and C. The three additional wheels (VI, VII and VIII) were used exclusively by the Kriegsmarine. The machine is also compatible with the Enigma M4 (when the 4th wheel of the M4 is set to position 'A').

Wheel ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ Notch Turnover #
ETW ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ      
I EKMFLGDQVZNTOWYHXUSPAIBRCJ Y Q 1
II AJDKSIRUXBLHWTMCQGZNPYFVOE M E 1
III BDFHJLCPRTXVZNYEIWGAKMUSQO D V 1
IV ESOVPZJAYQUIRHXLNFTGKDCMWB R J 1
V VZBRGITYUPSDNHLXAWMJQOFECK H Z 1
VI JPGVOUMFYQBENHZRDKASXLICTW HU ZM 2
VII NZJHGRCXMYSWBOUFAIVLPEKQDT HU ZM 2
VIII FKQHTLXOCBJSPDZRAMEWNIUYGV HU ZM 2
UKW-B YRUHQSLDPXNGOKMIEBFZCWVJAT      
UKW-C FVPJIAOYEDRZXWGCTKUQSBNMHL      

Enigma M4
U-Boot Enigma

The Enigma M4 was a further development of the M3 and was used exclusively by the U-boat division of the German Navy (Kriegsmarine). It was introduced unexpectedly on 2 February 1942. Below is the wiring for each wheel, the ETW and all known UKWs. UKW-B was the standard reflector throughout the war and UKW-C was only temporarily used during the war. The wiring of the first 5 wheels (I-V)is identical to the wiring of the 5 wheels of the Enigma I used by the Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe. This allowed secure communication between the departments.

Wheel ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ Notch Turnover #
ETW ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ      
I EKMFLGDQVZNTOWYHXUSPAIBRCJ Y Q 1
II AJDKSIRUXBLHWTMCQGZNPYFVOE M E 1
III BDFHJLCPRTXVZNYEIWGAKMUSQO D V 1
IV ESOVPZJAYQUIRHXLNFTGKDCMWB R J 1
V VZBRGITYUPSDNHLXAWMJQOFECK H Z 1
VI JPGVOUMFYQBENHZRDKASXLICTW HU ZM 2
VII NZJHGRCXMYSWBOUFAIVLPEKQDT HU ZM 2
VIII FKQHTLXOCBJSPDZRAMEWNIUYGV HU ZM 2
Beta LEYJVCNIXWPBQMDRTAKZGFUHOS      
Gamma FSOKANUERHMBTIYCWLQPZXVGJD      
UKW-B ENKQAUYWJICOPBLMDXZVFTHRGS      
UKW-C RDOBJNTKVEHMLFCWZAXGYIPSUQ      

The three extra wheels (VI, VII and VIII) have two notches each, which causes a more frequent wheel turnover, but also introduces another weakness (more about the Wheel turnover).


Enigma G
Zählwerk Enigma A28 and G31

The Zählwerk Enigma was the first machine with a cog-wheel driven stepping mechanism. It is the predecessor of the Enigma G. As the Zählwerk Enigma was built as a commercial machine, the initial wiring was identical to the wiring of the Enigma D. The machine (and also the later G31) was also sold to the military (e.g. to the German secret service, the Abwehr) and to some foreign customers. Some of the latter changed the wiring of the cipher wheels, but in most cases the wiring of the UKW was left unaltered. Examples of individual Enigma G wiring are given below.

Wheel ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ Notch Turnover #
ETW QWERTZUIOASDFGHJKPYXCVBNML      
I LPGSZMHAEOQKVXRFYBUTNICJDW ACDEHIJKMNOQSTWXY SUVWZABCEFGIKLOPQ 17
II SLVGBTFXJQOHEWIRZYAMKPCNDU ABDGHIKLNOPSUVY STVYZACDFGHKMNQ 15
III CJGDPSHKTURAWZXFMYNQOBVLIE CEFIMNPSUVZ UWXAEFHKMNR 11
UKW IMETCGFRAYSQBZXWLHKDVUPOJN      

Wiring of the G-312
G31 Abwehr Enigma

The table below shows the wiring of the G-312. Although the machine is believed to have been used by the German Abwehr, it is the only one every found with this wiring [3]. Different wirings were used for different sections of the Abwehr, and also for different radio nets. It is also possible that some machines were rewired a number of times during their lifetime.

Wheel ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ Notch Turnover #
ETW QWERTZUIOASDFGHJKPYXCVBNML      
I DMTWSILRUYQNKFEJCAZBPGXOHV ACDEHIJKMNOQSTWXY SUVWZABCEFGIKLOPQ 17
II HQZGPJTMOBLNCIFDYAWVEUSRKX ABDGHIKLNOPSUVY STVYZACDFGHKMNQ 15
III UQNTLSZFMREHDPXKIBVYGJCWOA CEFIMNPSUVZ UWXAEFHKMNR 11
UKW RULQMZJSYGOCETKWDAHNBXPVIF      

Wiring of the G-260
G31 Abwehr Enigma

In March 1945, just before the end of WWII, the Argentine police arrested the German spy Johann Siegfried Becker. In his posession was an Enigma model G31 with serial number G-260. Two months later, they handed the machine over to the Americans [4]. As Becker was believed to work for the German Secret Service, the Abwehr, it is most likely that the G-260 was wired for Abwehr communication. The machine is now on public display at the NCM in Fort Meade (Maryland, US).

Wheel ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ Notch Turnover #
ETW QWERTZUIOASDFGHJKPYXCVBNML      
I RCSPBLKQAUMHWYTIFZVGOJNEXD ACDEHIJKMNOQSTWXY SUVWZABCEFGIKLOPQ 17
II WCMIBVPJXAROSGNDLZKEYHUFQT ABDGHIKLNOPSUVY STVYZACDFGHKMNQ 15
III FVDHZELSQMAXOKYIWPGCBUJTNR CEFIMNPSUVZ UWXAEFHKMNR 11
UKW IMETCGFRAYSQBZXWLHKDVUPOJN      

Wiring of the G-111
G31 Hungarian Enigma

The G-111 was a special version of the Enigma G (G31 model Ch.15b) [5] that was built for the Hungarian Army. It was supplied with five cipher discs. The table below shows the wiring of the wheels of the G-111, the entry disc (Eintrittswalze, ETW) and the reflector (Umkehrwalze, UKW). Note that only wheels I, II and V were found with this machine.

Wheel ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ Notch Turnover #
ETW QWERTZUIOASDFGHJKPYXCVBNML *1    
I WLRHBQUNDKJCZSEXOTMAGYFPVI ACDEHIJKMNOQSTWXY SUVWZABCEFGIKLOPQ 17
II TFJQAZWMHLCUIXRDYGOEVBNSKP ABDGHIKLNOPSUVY STVYZACDFGHKMNQ 15
III ? ? ? 11
IV ? ? ? ?
V QTPIXWVDFRMUSLJOHCANEZKYBG AEHNPUY SWZFHMQ 7
UKW IMETCGFRAYSQBZXWLHKDVUPOJN *2    

As we can learn from the above table, the number of notches as well as the turnover positions of wheels I and II are identical to those on the same wheels of other Zählwerk machines (17 and 15 notches respectively). This suggests that the notches of the G-machines were never changed.

  1. This machine contains the standard wiring of the ETW for a commercial machine.
  2. The UKW is also wired in the standard fashion for a commercial machine.

Enigma D
Commercial Enigma A26

The Enigma D can be considered as the main commercial machine [6]. It was introduced in 1926 and was the basis for most of the later machines, including the Enigma K, the Enigma I and the Zählwerk Enigma. The wiring was identical for all commercial machines, including the later Enigma K (A27). Although the wiring of the wheels was changed by some customers, they often left the wiring of the UKW intact. As far as we know, the wiring of the ETW was never changed.

Wheel ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ Notch Turnover #
ETW QWERTZUIOASDFGHJKPYXCVBNML      
I LPGSZMHAEOQKVXRFYBUTNICJDW G Y 1
II SLVGBTFXJQOHEWIRZYAMKPCNDU M E 1
III CJGDPSHKTURAWZXFMYNQOBVLIE V N 1
UKW IMETCGFRAYSQBZXWLHKDVUPOJN      

Enigma K
Commercial Enigma A27

The wiring of the wheels of the standard Enigma K was identical to the wiring of the Enigma D. This suggests that the machine was initially intended for commercial customers. The standard commercial wiring is given in the table below [7].

Wheel ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ Notch Turnover #
ETW QWERTZUIOASDFGHJKPYXCVBNML      
I LPGSZMHAEOQKVXRFYBUTNICJDW G Y 1
II SLVGBTFXJQOHEWIRZYAMKPCNDU M E 1
III CJGDPSHKTURAWZXFMYNQOBVLIE V N 1
UKW IMETCGFRAYSQBZXWLHKDVUPOJN      

Swiss-K
Swiss Enigma K variant

This was the Swiss variant of the Enigma K. All Enigma K machines were delivered by the Germans with the standard commercial wheel wiring, also known from the Enigma D (see the table below). Immediately after reception, however, the Swiss changed the wiring of all cipher wheels [7].

Although the Swiss altered the wiring of the cipher wheels (I, II and III), the wiring of the UKW (reflector) was left unchanged. This is true for all three users of the Enigma K: the Swiss Army, the Air Force and the Foreign Ministry (diplomatic service). In the table below, the only known wiring of the wheels of the Swiss Air Force are given. The wiring of the other services are unknown to us.

Swiss Air Force
Wheel ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ Notch Turnover #
ETW QWERTZUIOASDFGHJKPYXCVBNML      
I PEZUOHXSCVFMTBGLRINQJWAYDK G Y 1
II ZOUESYDKFWPCIQXHMVBLGNJRAT M E 1
III EHRVXGAOBQUSIMZFLYNWKTPDJC V N 1
UKW IMETCGFRAYSQBZXWLHKDVUPOJN      

Enigma KD
Enigma K with UKW-D

The Enigma KD was a standard commercial Enigma K machine with a rewirable reflector (UKW-D). Below is the wiring if the first three wheels (I, II and III) of the Enigma KD that was found in the archives of the FRA in Sweden [8]. This wiring might be identical to the first three wheels of the Enigma KD used by Mil Amt during WWII, but this is currently uncertain.

Wheel ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ Notch Turnover #
ETW QWERTZUIOASDFGHJKPYXCVBNML      
I VEZIOJCXKYDUNTWAPLQGBHSFMR ACGIMPTVY SUYAEHLNQ 9
II HGRBSJZETDLVPMQYCXAOKINFUW ACGIMPTVY SUYAEHLNQ 9
III NWLHXGRBYOJSAZDVTPKFQMEUIC ACGIMPTVY SUYAEHLNQ 9
UKW NSUOMKLIHZFGEADVXWBYCPRQTJ     *1
  1. Note that due to the nature of the (rewirable) UKW it does not have a fixed wiring. The table above shows the wiring of the UKW when the machine was discovered at the FRU. The actual wiring will have been changed frequently when the machine was used in an operational context.
  2. Mil Amt changed the order of the wheels and the Ringstellung daily, whilst the Grundstellung (and probably also the wiring of UKW-D) was changed every three weeks [7].

Railway Enigma
Modified Enigma K

During WWII, the Germans used a special Enigma machine for the German Railway (Reichsbahn). It was basically a standard commercial Enigma K with rewired wheels and a rewired reflector (UKW). Furthermore, the position of the notches of wheels I and III were swapped [7].  More

Wheel ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ Notch Turnover #
ETW QWERTZUIOASDFGHJKPYXCVBNML      
I JGDQOXUSCAMIFRVTPNEWKBLZYH V N 1
II NTZPSFBOKMWRCJDIVLAEYUXHGQ M E 1
III JVIUBHTCDYAKEQZPOSGXNRMWFL G Y 1
UKW QYHOGNECVPUZTFDJAXWMKISRBL      

Enigma T
Japanese Enigma (Tirpitz)

The Enigma T (Tirpitz) was a special version of the Enigma K that was made for the Japanese Army during WWII. The wheels were wired differently and each had five turnover notches [7]. The table below shows the wiring of the wheels, the entry disc (ETW) and the reflector (UKW).

Wheel ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ Notch Turnover #
ETW KZROUQHYAIGBLWVSTDXFPNMCJE   *1  
I KPTYUELOCVGRFQDANJMBSWHZXI EHMSY WZEKQ 5
II UPHZLWEQMTDJXCAKSOIGVBYFNR EHNTZ WZFLR 5
III QUDLYRFEKONVZAXWHMGPJBSICT EHMSY WZEKQ 5
IV CIWTBKXNRESPFLYDAGVHQUOJZM EHNTZ WZFLR 5
V UAXGISNJBVERDYLFZWTPCKOHMQ GKNSZ YCFKR 5
VI XFUZGALVHCNYSEWQTDMRBKPIOJ FMQUY XEIMQ 5
VII BJVFTXPLNAYOZIKWGDQERUCHSM GKNSZ YCFKR 5
VIII YMTPNZHWKODAJXELUQVGCBISFR FMQUY XEIMQ 5
UKW GEKPBTAUMOCNILJDXZYFHWVQSR      
  1. Note that this is the only machine with a different wiring for the ETW. All other Enigma machines have an ETW that is wired either in the order of the alphabet (ABCDEF...) or the order of the keyboard (QWERZU...).

Glossary
ETW   Eintrittzwalze
Entry disc
UKW   Umkehrwalze
Reflector (literally: Reversing wheel)
Contributors
The following people have contributed to the information on this page. For detailed copyright information please refer to the relevant page for each of the Enigma machines mentioned here.

  • Neils Faurholt
  • David Hamer
  • Philip Marks
  • Tom Perera
  • Paul Reuvers
  • Marc Simons
  • Geoff Sullivan
  • Frode Weierud
  • Anders Wik
  • Gütter Hütter
References
  1. Philip Marks and Frode Weierud,
    Recovering the Wiring of Enigma's Umkehrwalze A

    Cryptologia, January 2000, Volume XXIV, Number 1, pp. 55-66.

  2. David Hamer and Frode Weierud, Wiring of Norway Enigma
    Personal correspondence, 2001.

  3. David Hamer, G-312: An Abwehr Enigma
    Cryptologia, January 2000, Volume XXIV, Number 1.

  4. US Military Attaché in Argentine, Intelligence Report about G-260
    US Navy Intelligence Division. 30 May 1945. NARA CBKI 13, Box 5395, nr. 1574 1

  5. Paul Reuvers & Marc Simons. G-111: A rare Zählwerk Enigma variant
    Detailed description of the Enigma G-111. August 2009.

  6. Paul Reuvers and Marc Simons, Wiring of Enigma A818
    Wiring of the A818 verified in October 2011 as commercial wiring.

  7. David Hamer, Geoff Sullivan and Frode Weierud
    Enigma Variations: An Extended Family of Machines

    Cryptologia, July 1998, Volume XXII, Number 3.

  8. Försvarets Radioanstalt (FRA), Sweden (National Defence Radio Establishment)
    Enigma KD from private collection of FRA.

  9. Günter Hütter, Sondermaschine Enigma A19872 S/jla/43
    Personal correspondence, November 2017.

  10. Frode Weierud, Information about S-machines and wheel wiring
    Personal correspondence, November 2017.

  11. José Ramón Soler Fuensanta, Fransisco Javier López-Brea Espiau and Frode Weierud,
    Spanish Enigma: A History of the Enigma in Spain
    Cryptologia, 2010, Volume 34, Number 4, pp. 301-328.
Further information
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Crypto Museum. Created: Thursday 24 September 2009. Last changed: Wednesday, 29 November 2017 - 17:51 CET.
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